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PE - Anatomy and Physiology

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Mind Map on PE - Anatomy and Physiology, created by Jack Burdett on 10/14/2015.
Jack Burdett
Mind Map by Jack Burdett, updated more than 1 year ago
Jack Burdett
Created by Jack Burdett over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

PE - Anatomy and Physiology
  1. Skeletal System and Muscles of the Body
      1. Synovial Joints
        1. Ball and Socket - Shoulder
          1. Saddle - Thumb
            1. Hinge - Elbow
              1. Gliding - Vertabrea
                1. Pivot - Neck
                  1. Condyloid - Wrist
                  2. 3 Main Joints
                    1. Synovial Joints
                      1. Fibrous (immoveable) Joints
                        1. Cartilaginous (slightly moveable) Joints
                        2. Structure of a Synovial Joint
                          1. Ligament
                            1. A band of strong fibrous tissue
                              1. Connects bone to bone
                              2. Synovial Fluid
                                1. A slippery fluid - the consistency of egg-whites - that is contained within the joint cavity
                                  1. To reduce friction between the articular cartilage in the joint
                                  2. Articular Cartilage
                                    1. Glassy-smooth cartilage that is spongy and covers the ends of the bones in the joint
                                      1. To absorb shock and prevent friction between the ends of the bones in the joint
                                      2. Joint Capsule
                                        1. A tough fibrous tissue that has two layers, with the fibrous capsule lying outside the synovial membrane
                                          1. The fibrous capsule helps to strengthen the joint, while the synovial membrane lines the joint and secretes synovial fluid
                                          2. Tendon
                                            1. A band of strong fibrous tissue
                                              1. Connects muscle to bone
                                            2. Movement at Synovial Joints
                                              1. Flexion
                                                1. Bending of a limb
                                                2. Extension
                                                  1. The straightening of a joint
                                                  2. Horizontal Flezion
                                                    1. When the shoulder is flexed and the hand comes across the front of the body
                                                    2. Horizontal Extension
                                                      1. When the shoulder is flexed and the hand moves away from the front of the body
                                                      2. Abduction
                                                        1. Moving the body part away from the central line
                                                        2. Adduction
                                                          1. Moving the body part towards the central line
                                                          2. Circumduction
                                                            1. Moving the entire connecting limb through its full range of motion
                                                            2. Pronation
                                                              1. The movement of turning the palm over to face downwards
                                                              2. Supnation
                                                                1. The movement of turning the palm over to face up
                                                                2. Dorsiflexion
                                                                  1. Backward flexion or bending, as of the hand or foot
                                                                  2. Plantar flexion
                                                                    1. Extension of the ankle, pointing of the foot or toes
                                                                    2. Lateral flexion
                                                                      1. Bending to the side
                                                                      2. Rotation
                                                                        1. Movement in which something revolves around a single long axis
                                                                      3. Antagonistic Pair
                                                                        1. Occurs when muscles work as a pair to produce a movement
                                                                          1. One muscle shortens to produce movement whilst the other muscle lengthens to allow that movement
                                                                            1. E.G. Flexion at the arm, the biceps brachii being the agonist and the triceps brachii being the antagonist
                                                                            2. Contraction Types
                                                                              1. Isometric
                                                                                1. Tension is produced at the muscle, but there is no change in muscle length
                                                                                2. Isotonic
                                                                                  1. Tension is produced in the muscle and there is a change in muscle length
                                                                                    1. It is broken down into concentric and eccentric
                                                                                    2. Concentric
                                                                                      1. Shortening of the muscle while producing tension
                                                                                      2. Eccentric
                                                                                        1. Lengthening of the muscle while producing tension
                                                                                      3. Health Disorders
                                                                                        1. Osteoporosis
                                                                                          1. Caused by low bone density
                                                                                            1. Bones in hip, spine and wrist joints are most commonly affected
                                                                                              1. More associated with the older generation and women over men
                                                                                              2. Growth Plate Disorders
                                                                                                1. Damage (fractures) to the growth plate within a bone - common as its the weakest part of the growing skeleton
                                                                                                  1. Associated with young people as the growth plates are still active
                                                                                                    1. Caused by sudden force travelling through the bone
                                                                                                    2. Osteoarthritis
                                                                                                      1. Wearing down of articular cartilage causing friction within joints
                                                                                                        1. Can lead to bone spurs within joints that cause considerable pain
                                                                                                          1. Effects large weight bearing joints such as hip and knees
                                                                                                          2. Joint Stability
                                                                                                            1. Refers to whether a joint is able to be compressed and stretched repeatedly without injury
                                                                                                              1. Shallow joints are less stable
                                                                                                                1. Weight bearing and deep joints are most stable
                                                                                                                  1. Ligaments help to promote joint stability
                                                                                                                    1. Ligaments aren't very elastic though and so can be damaged easily
                                                                                                                      1. Location and tone of surrounding muscles can effect joint stability
                                                                                                                      2. Posture and Alignment
                                                                                                                        1. The bodies use of muscles to maintain good posture
                                                                                                                          1. Good posture allows you to exercise with maximum efficiency and minimum risk of injury
                                                                                                                            1. Good posture prevents lower back pain
                                                                                                                          2. Muscle Fibre Types
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