CELLS

kenzieaj14
Mind Map by kenzieaj14, updated more than 1 year ago
kenzieaj14
Created by kenzieaj14 about 6 years ago
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Description

all about our cells

Resource summary

CELLS
  1. Prokaryotic
    1. lack membrane enclosed nucleus
      1. bacteria
        1. can be divided into
          1. cell envelope
            1. includes
              1. plasma membrane
                1. can form
                  1. mesosomes
                    1. internal pouches
                      1. increase surface area for the attachment of enzymes
                  2. phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins
                  3. cell wall
                    1. when present
                      1. maintains the shape
                    2. glycocalyx
                      1. is a
                        1. layer of polysaccharides that lies outside the cell wall
                          1. when it is well organized it is called a
                            1. capsule
                              1. when it is not well organized
                                1. slime layer
                                  1. easily removed
                                2. hard to remove
                    3. cytoplasm
                      1. semifluid solution composed of water and inorganic and organic molecules encased by a plasma membrane
                        1. DNA
                          1. is found in
                            1. single coiled chromosome
                              1. located in
                                1. nucleoid
                                  1. extrachromosomal pieces of DNA
                                    1. are called
                                      1. plasmids
                                        1. which are used in
                                          1. biotechnology
                                            1. as a
                                              1. molecular vehicle
                                                1. also called a
                                                  1. vector
                                          2. to transport DNA from different organisms
                              2. are synthesized on
                                1. ribosomes
                                  1. proteins encoded by the bacterial DNA
                                    1. they contain
                                      1. RNA and 2 subunits
                                        1. cyanobacteria
                                          1. are
                                            1. bacteria capable of photosynthesis
                                              1. there cytoplasm contains
                                                1. intense internal membranes
                                                  1. called
                                                    1. thylakoids
                                                      1. this is where
                                                        1. chlorophyll and other pigments absorb solar energy for the production of carbohydrates
                                            2. are called the
                                              1. blue-green bacteria
                            2. appendages
                              1. flagella, fimbriae, and conjugation pili
                                1. are made of
                                  1. protein
                                    1. flagella
                                      1. are
                                        1. motile bacteria that can propel themselves in water by appendages
                                          1. another appendage
                                            1. fimbriae
                                              1. are
                                                1. small bristlelike fibers that sprout from cell surface
                                                  1. involved in locomotion
                                                2. conjugation pili
                                                  1. are
                                                    1. rigid tubular structures used by bacteria to pass DNA from cell to cell
                            3. most abundant
                              1. have an
                                1. average size of 1.1um wide and 2-6 um long
                                  1. most common shapes are
                                    1. bacillus
                                      1. are
                                        1. rod shaped
                                      2. coccus
                                        1. are
                                          1. spherical
                                        2. spirilla
                                          1. are
                                            1. spirals
                                    2. are made up of
                                      1. ribosome
                                        1. site of protein synthesis
                                          1. inclusion body
                                            1. stored nutrients
                                              1. mesosome
                                                1. plasma membrane that folds into the cytoplasm and increases surface area
                                                  1. fimbriae
                                                    1. hairlike bristles that allow adhesion to the surface
                                                      1. conjugation pilus
                                                        1. elongated hollow appendage used for DNA transfer to the other bacterial cells
                                                          1. nucleoid
                                                            1. location of the bacterial chromosome
                                                              1. plasma membrane
                                                                1. sheath around cytoplasm that regulates entrance and exit
                                                                  1. cell wall
                                                                    1. covering that supports shapes and protects cell
                                                                      1. glycocalyx
                                                                        1. gel like coating outside cell wall, if compact- capsule, if diffuse- slime layer
                                                                          1. flagellum
                                                                            1. rotating filament that pushes the cell forward
                                                      2. smallest living unit of matter
                                                        1. eukaryotic
                                                          1. origin
                                                            1. endosymbiotic theory
                                                              1. which explains
                                                                1. why mitochondria and chloroplast are bounded together by a double membrane and contain their own genetic material separate from the nucleus
                                                            2. has nucleus
                                                              1. that is
                                                                1. essential to the life of the cell
                                                                  1. contains
                                                                    1. genetic information
                                                                      1. nucleus contains
                                                                        1. chromatin
                                                                          1. in a matrix called
                                                                            1. nucleoplasm
                                                                            2. undergoes coiling into rodlike structures
                                                                              1. called
                                                                                1. chromosomes
                                                                                  1. carriers of genetic information
                                                                                    1. life is only possible because of the constant input of energy
                                                                                      1. by
                                                                                        1. mitochondria and chloroplasts
                                                                                          1. they
                                                                                            1. specialize in converting energy to a form that can be used by the cell
                                                                                              1. in cellular respiration
                                                                                                1. mitochondria break down carbohydrate-derived products to produce ATP
                                                                                                  1. chloroplast
                                                                                                    1. is a
                                                                                                      1. plastid
                                                                                                        1. are plant organelles that are surrounded by a double membrane and have varied functions
                                                                                                          1. chromoplasts
                                                                                                            1. are responsible for the color of autumn leaves, fruits, carrots
                                                                                                              1. leucoplasts
                                                                                                                1. colorless plastids that synthesize and store starches and oils
                                                                2. compartments of cells are called
                                                                  1. organelles
                                                                    1. carry out specialized functions that together allow the cell to be more efficient
                                                                      1. materials are transported by
                                                                        1. vesicles
                                                                          1. move through the
                                                                            1. cytoskeleton
                                                                              1. the protein fibers serve as a tracks for transport vesicles
                                                                                1. protein sequence of events is dogma of molecular biology
                                                                                  1. vesicles travling
                                                                                    1. may return to ER or plasma membrane where they discharge their contents to the outside of the cell
                                                                                      1. during
                                                                                        1. secretion
                                                                                          1. is termed
                                                                                            1. exocytosis because the substance exits cytoplasm
                                                                                              1. lysosomes (stomach)
                                                                                                1. are
                                                                                                  1. membrane bonded vesicles produced by the Golgi apparatus
                                                                                                    1. have a
                                                                                                      1. low PH level and store powerful hydrolytic digestive enzymes in an inactive state
                                                                                                  2. white blood cells have a greater proportion of lysosomes than other cells because of their specialized function is digestion of foreign bodies
                                                                                                    1. can cause
                                                                                                      1. nerve cells to die off
                                                                                                        1. tay-sachs disease
                                                                                                    2. similar to is a
                                                                                                      1. peroxisomes
                                                                                                        1. are
                                                                                                          1. metabolic assistants
                                                                                                            1. can cause
                                                                                                              1. neurological damage
                                                                                                                1. adrenoleukodystrophy
                                                                                2. larger than vesicles are
                                                                                  1. vacuoles
                                                                                    1. membranous sacs
                                                                                      1. rids cell of access water
                                                                                        1. stores substances
                                                                                          1. essential to plant fuction
                                                                                            1. control vacuole
                                                                                              1. maintains hydrostatic/turgor pressure in plants
                                                                                                1. which
                                                                                                  1. provides structural support
                                                                        2. organelles that make up eukaryotic cells
                                                                          1. plasma membrane
                                                                            1. outer surface that regulates entrance and exit of molecules
                                                                              1. cytoskeleton
                                                                                1. maintains cell shape and assists in movement of cell parts
                                                                                  1. microtubules
                                                                                    1. protein cylinders that move organelles
                                                                                      1. intermediate filaments
                                                                                        1. protein fibers that provide stability of shape
                                                                                          1. actin filamen
                                                                                            1. protein fibers that play a role in cell division and shape
                                                                                              1. centrioles
                                                                                                1. short cylinders of microtubules
                                                                                                  1. centrosome
                                                                                                    1. microtubule organizing center that contains a pair of centrioles
                                                                                                      1. lysosome
                                                                                                        1. vesicle that digests macromolecules and cell parts
                                                                                                          1. vesicle
                                                                                                            1. small membrane bounded sacs that stores and transports substances
                                                                                                              1. cytoplasm
                                                                                                                1. semifluid matrix outside nucleus that contains organells
                                                                                                                  1. nucleus
                                                                                                                    1. command center of cell
                                                                                                                      1. chromatin
                                                                                                                        1. diffuse threads containing DNA and protein
                                                                                                                          1. nucleolus
                                                                                                                            1. region that produces and subunits of ribosomes
                                                                                                                              1. endoplasmic reticulum
                                                                                                                                1. protein and lipid metabolism
                                                                                                                                  1. rough ER
                                                                                                                                    1. studded with ribosomes, synthesizes lipid molecules, forms glycoproteins
                                                                                                                                      1. smooth ER
                                                                                                                                        1. lacks ribosomes, synthesizes lipid molecules, helps produce more lipids
                                                                                                                                          1. peroxisome
                                                                                                                                            1. vesicle that is involved in fatty acid metabolism
                                                                                                                                              1. ribosomes
                                                                                                                                                1. particles that carry our protein synthesis
                                                                                                                                                  1. polyribosome
                                                                                                                                                    1. strings of ribosomes simultaneously synthesizing same protiens
                                                                                                                                                      1. mitochondrion
                                                                                                                                                        1. carries out cellular respiration producing ATP
                                                                                                                                                          1. Golgi apparatus
                                                                                                                                                            1. processes, packages, and secretes modified proteins
                                                                                                                                                              1. in plants
                                                                                                                                                                1. nuclear pore
                                                                                                                                                                  1. permits passage of proteins into the nucleus and ribosomal subunits out of nucleus (gate keeper)
                                                                                                                                                                    1. centrosome
                                                                                                                                                                      1. microtubule organizing center(lacks centrioles
                                                                                                                                                                        1. central vacuole
                                                                                                                                                                          1. large fluid filled sac that stores metabolites and helps maintain turgor pressure
                                                                                                                                                                            1. middle lamella
                                                                                                                                                                              1. cements together the primary cell walls of adjacent plant cells
                                                                                                                                                                                1. chloroplast
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. carries out photosynthesis producing sugars
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. granum
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. stack of chlorophyll containing thylakoids in a chloroplast
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. microtubules
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. protein cylinders that aid movement of organelles
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. plasma membrane
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. surrounds cytoplasm and regulates entrance and exit
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. cell wall
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. outer surface that shapes supports and protects cell
                                                                                                                                                                          2. 20nm by30 nm
                                                                                                                                                                        2. helps detoxify drugs
                                                                                                                                                                2. 5um
                                                                                                                                                            2. produced by the Golgi apparatus
                                                                                                                                          2. archeans
                                                                                                                                            1. possess both qualities
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