Understanding Organisms

Oliver Wood
Mind Map by Oliver Wood, updated more than 1 year ago
Oliver Wood
Created by Oliver Wood over 6 years ago
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AS Level Biology (B1: Understanding Organisms) Mind Map on Understanding Organisms, created by Oliver Wood on 11/25/2013.

Resource summary

Understanding Organisms
1 Fitness + Health
1.1 Blood Pressure = mm of Mercury
1.1.1 mmHg
1.1.2 Systolic = Max pressure
1.1.3 Diastolic = Low pressure
1.1.4 Increased by
1.1.4.1 Obesity
1.1.4.2 Smoking
1.1.4.3 Stress
1.1.4.4 High Alcohol intake
1.1.5 Stroke
1.1.5.1 High blood pressure
1.1.5.1.1 Can damage kidneys
1.1.5.2 Damage to brain
1.1.6 Low Pressure
1.1.6.1 Dizziness/ Fainting
1.2 Fitness = Ability for physical activity
1.2.1 Measured by cardiovascular activity
1.2.2 Strength
1.2.3 Flexibility
1.2.4 Stamina
1.2.5 Speed
1.2.6 Agility
1.2.7 Fitness is situation dependent
1.3 Health = Disease free
1.4 Smoking
1.4.1 Increases blood pressure
1.4.1.1 Carbon Monoxide reduces oxygen carried by blood
1.4.1.1.1 Oxygen deprivation damages cells
1.4.1.1.2 CO combines with haemoglobin
1.4.1.1.2.1 Prevents oxygen carrying
1.4.2 Nicotine
1.4.2.1 Increases heart rate
1.5 Diet and Heart disease
1.5.1 Risk increased by
1.5.1.1 High saturated fat diet
1.5.1.1.1 Cholesterol build up in arteries
1.5.1.2 High salt levels
1.5.1.2.1 Increases blood pressure
1.5.2 Arteries narrowing
2 Balanced Diet
2.1 Chemical Groups
2.1.1 Carbohydrates
2.1.1.1 Simple sugars
2.1.1.2 Stored in Liver as GLYCOGEN
2.1.2 Proteins
2.1.2.1 Amino acids
2.1.2.2 Cannot be stored
2.1.3 Fats
2.1.3.1 Fatty acids / glycerol
2.1.3.2 Stored under skin / around organs
2.2 Protein Intake
2.2.1 Estimated avg. Daily Requirement
2.2.1.1 EAR = 0.6 x Body mass (kg)
2.2.1.2 Given in g/day
2.2.2 First Class proteins
2.2.2.1 Essential
2.2.2.2 Fish / meat
2.2.3 Second Class proteins
2.2.3.1 Plants
2.2.3.2 Non-essential
2.3 Overweight / Underweight?
2.3.1 BMI
2.3.1.1 BMI = mass in kg / (height in m)^2
2.3.1.2 30+ = Obese
2.3.1.3 20+ = Overweight
2.3.1.4 20-25 = Normal
2.3.1.5 <20 = Underweight
3 Staying Healthy
3.1 Malaria
3.1.1 Protozoa: Plasmodium
3.1.1.1 Feeds on red blood cells
3.1.1.2 Carried by vectors - Mosquitoes
3.1.1.3 A parasite, causes harm
3.1.2 Killing Mosquitoes stops spread
3.2 Cancers
3.2.1 Smoking increases lung cancer risk
3.2.2 Alcohol increases mouth/liver
3.2.3 UV increases skin cancer risk
3.2.4 Beningn
3.2.4.1 Divide slowly
3.2.4.2 Harmless e.g. warts
3.2.5 Malignant
3.2.5.1 Rapid division
3.2.5.2 Uncontrolled growth
3.2.5.3 Spread in body
3.3 Pathogens
3.3.1 Antibodies
3.3.1.1 Provided by white blood cells
3.3.1.2 Lock onto pathogen
3.3.2 Vaccines
3.3.2.1 Quick but short term
3.3.2.2 Inject harmless pathogen with antigens
3.3.2.2.1 Antigens prompt antibody production
3.3.2.2.1.1 Memory cells remain in body
3.3.2.2.1.1.1 Creates long-term immunity
3.3.2.3 Provides small risk to individual
3.3.2.3.1 Outweighed by pathogen risk
3.3.3 Antigens
3.3.3.1 Active area of pathogen
3.3.3.2 Gets locked on to
3.3.4 Antibiotics
3.3.4.1 Bacteria
3.3.4.2 Fungi
3.3.4.3 Destroy pathogen
3.3.4.4 Resistant strains
3.3.4.4.1 Due to excessive use
3.3.4.4.2 Highly dangerous
3.3.4.4.3 E.g. MRSA superbug
3.3.5 Antivirals
3.3.5.1 Viruses
3.3.5.2 Slow down pathogen development
3.3.6 Placebo
3.3.6.1 'imaginary' effect
3.3.6.2 Blind trial
3.3.6.2.1 Patient unaware
3.3.6.3 Double blind trial
3.3.6.3.1 Patient and doctor unaware
4 The Nervous System
4.1 Eyes
4.1.1 Pupil
4.1.2 Iris
4.1.3 Cornea
4.1.4 Lens
4.1.5 Retina
4.1.6 Ciliary Muscles
4.1.6.1 Control Suspensory Ligaments (Movement)
4.1.7 Optic Nerve
4.1.8 Binocular Vision of a predator (us)
4.1.8.1 Allows depth perception
4.1.9 "Accomodation"
4.1.9.1 Focus on near/distant objects
4.1.10 Faults in Vision
4.1.10.1 Long/short sight
4.1.10.2 Colourblindness
4.2 Nerve Cells
4.2.1 Neurones
4.2.1.1 Axon carries message
4.2.1.2 Dendrites pick up impulses
4.2.1.3 Reflex arc:
4.2.1.3.1 Stimulus
4.2.1.3.1.1 Receptor
4.2.1.3.1.1.1 Sensory Neurone
4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1 Central Nervous System
4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 Motor Neurone
4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Effector
4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Response
4.2.2 Synapse = Gap between neurones
4.2.2.1 Transmitter substance triggered by impulse
4.2.2.1.1 Transmitter Diffuses
4.2.2.1.1.1 Binds with receptor molecules
4.2.2.1.1.1.1 Next impulse begins
5 Drugs
5.1 Depressants block neurotransmitters
5.1.1 (Slow down responses)
5.2 Stimulants cause increase in neurotransmitters
5.3 Painkillers
5.4 Perfomance Enhancers
5.5 Hallucinogens
5.6 Smoking
5.6.1 Contains cilla-stopping chemicals
5.6.2 Cilia are tiny hairs in trachea, bronchi, bronchules
5.6.3 Smoker's Cough
5.6.3.1 Dust and smoke lining the trachea
5.6.3.2 Mucus not moved
5.6.4 Increases cancer risk
5.7 Alcohol
5.7.1 increases reaction times
5.7.1.1 Thus increases accident risk
5.7.2 1 unit = 1 hour
5.7.3 Liver is damaged by processing
6 Balance
6.1 Homeostasis
6.1.1 "Internal Environment"
6.1.2 Control of water, CO2 and temp
6.1.3 Works on negative feedback
6.2 Temp. Control
6.2.1 37'C
6.2.1.1 Optimal level for enzymes
6.2.2 Heat stroke
6.2.3 Dehydration
6.2.4 Low temp = Hypothermia
6.2.5 Vasodilation
6.2.6 Vasoconstriction
6.3 Blood Sugars
6.3.1 Controlled by Insulin
6.3.2 Diabetes
6.3.2.1 Type 1: NO INSULIN
6.3.2.1.1 Injections needed
6.3.2.1.1.1 Strenuous activity -> Less insulin injected
6.3.2.2 Type 2: Some insulin
6.3.2.2.1 Diet regulated
6.3.2.3 Insulin: Converts excess glucose into Glycogen
7 Controlling Plant Growth
7.1 Roots = Negatively phototropic
7.1.1 Positively geotropic
7.2 Stem = Positively Phototropic
7.2.1 Negatively Geotropic
7.3 Auxins
7.3.1 Plant growth hormone
7.3.2 Concentrate in SHADY PART
7.3.2.1 Plant grows TOWARDS LIGHT
7.4 Other Plan Hormone Uses
7.4.1 Weedkillers
7.4.2 Root growth
7.4.3 Delay/accelerate ripening
7.4.4 Control seed dormancy
8 Variation/Inhereitance
8.1 Dominant/reccessive
8.1.1 Alleles
8.1.2 Homozygous = Two identical alleles
8.1.3 Heterozygous = two different alleles
8.2 Genotype: Genetic Makeup
8.3 Phenotype: Physical appearance
8.4 Human Chromosomes
8.4.1 23 Pairs
8.4.2 Sex chromosomes = XX or XY (Or XYY)
8.4.3 Sperm: Either X or Y
8.4.4 Egg: Only X
8.4.5 Gametes = Sex sells
8.5 Variation causes
8.5.1 Gene mutation
8.5.2 Rearrangement of genes
8.5.3 Standard fertilisation
8.6 Faulty Genes
8.6.1 Pre-birth genetic tests
8.6.1.1 Lets us know risk of inhereitance
8.6.2 Caused by faulty alleles
8.6.2.1 Mostly recessive

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