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Crude Oils and Fuels


GCSE Chemistry Mind Map on Crude Oils and Fuels, created by donnapumpkin on 11/02/2015.
Mind Map by donnapumpkin, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by donnapumpkin over 6 years ago

Resource summary

Crude Oils and Fuels
  1. Crude Oil
    1. mixture of very large number of compounds that come from reserves in the ground
    2. Mixture
      1. two or more elements or compounds that are not chemically joined together
      2. Hydrocarbon
        1. molecule made of hydrogen and carbon atoms only
        2. Saturated
          1. When a hydrocarbon contains as many hydrogen atoms as possible (no double bonds)
          2. Fuel
            1. Compounds that are burnt to produce heat energy
            2. Impurities in fuel
              1. Fuels can have the following impurities in fuel: Sulfur, carbon and/or hydrogen
              2. Fractional
                1. Fractional distillation
                  1. A method of separating the different hydrocarbons in crude oil by using the fact that they different boiling points
                    1. hydrocarbons with high boiling points condense first
                      1. hydrocarbons with low boiling points condense higher up the column
                  2. Mixture of molecules that will be of similar sized and similar boiling point
                  3. Volatility
                    1. Tendency of a liquid to turn into a gas
                      1. Smaller hydrocarbons will be more volatile
                        1. Larger hydrocarbons will be less volatle
                    2. Viscosity
                      1. How easily a liquid flows
                        1. Smaller hydrocarbons will be less viscous
                          1. Larger hydrocarbons will be more viscous
                      2. Flammability
                        1. How easily a fuel burns
                          1. Smaller hydrocarbons will be more flammable
                            1. Larger hydrocarbons will be less flammable
                        2. Combustion
                          1. When a hydrocarbon fuel is oxidised and energy is released.
                            1. The carbon and hydrogen are oxidised -> carbon dioxide + water
                            2. Wet scrubbing
                              1. Removing sulfur dioxide after combustion from flue gases in powerstations chimney - reduces production of acid rain
                            3. Acid rain
                              1. When sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide dissolve in droplets of water in the air and react with oxygen and then fall as acid rain
                              2. Global warming
                                1. When carbon dioxide absorbs energy which is radiated from the earth's surface and causes a rise in global temperatures
                                2. Biofuels
                                  1. Renewable fuels that are made from animals or plant products
                                  2. Biodiesel
                                    1. Biofuel made from oils extracted from plants
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