Nationalism

philisophic
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Nationalism, causing the fall of empires and forming Italy and Germany.

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philisophic
Created by philisophic almost 6 years ago
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Nationalism
1 Nationalists were not loyal to their kings, but their people.
1.1 According to nationalists, links such as a common history, culture, world-view, or language bound people together as a nation.
2 This was capable of tearing apart powerful empires.
2.1 The Austro-Hungarian Empire, which brought together countless ethnic groups, split and further crumbled into nation-states after World War I.
2.2 The czars in Russia also ruled over several groups. Their policy of Russification, imposing culture on all the groups, strengthened the nationalist feelings. World War I and the communist revolution finally separated Russia.
2.3 The Ottomans controlled many groups as well. They issued reform to grant equal citizenship, but this angered the conservative Turks. The Ottoman Empire broke apart after World War I.
3 Nationalism also created and unified nation-states.
3.1 Italy formed from the territory of crumbling empires.
3.1.1 Guiseppe Mazzini, an idealistic Italian, organized a nationalist group. He also briefly headed a republican government, but these rebellions failed.
3.1.2 Italian nationalists looked to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia for leadership. Count Camillo di Cavour, Sardinia's prime minister, tried to get control of northern Italy through diplomacy and cunning. He succeeded and also tried to control the south by helping Guiseppe Garibaldi, leader of the "Red Shirts", a group of nationalist rebels.
3.1.3 Though unified, Italy faced severe economic problems.
3.2 Prussia forged a strong German state.
3.2.1 Otto von Bismarck, a conservative Junker (wealthy landowner), became prime minister of Prussia. He was a master of realpolitik, or "the politics of reality". He formed an alliance between Prussia and Austria and went to war with Denmark to increase national pride.
3.2.1.1 Bismarck provoked Austria into the Seven Weeks' War, which Prussia won easily. He also provoked France into the Franco-Prussian War, which Prussia also won. Because of these wars, nationalist fever united all of Germany. King Wilhelm I was crowned kaiser, or emperor, of the Second Reich.

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