Napoleon Forges an Empire

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Napoleon Forges an Empire
1 Napoleon Bonaparte, a military genius, seized power in France and made himself emperor
2 Historical Context
2.1 Background of Napoleon Bonaparte
2.1.1 Early Career of Napoleon Bonaparte
2.1.1.1 The Directory Loses Control
2.1.1.1.1 Coup d’etat
2.1.1.1.1.1 France at Peace
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Napoleon Rules France
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Napoleon Restores Order in France
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Concordat with Rome
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Napoleonic Code
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Napoleon Crowned as Emperor
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Haitian Revolution
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Louisiana Purchase
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The Battle of Trafalgar
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Napoleon’s French Empire
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 By 1812, Napoleon was the master of Europe
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 He controlled a huge continental empire not seen since the time of Ancient Rome but it was very UNSTABLE
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Horatio Nelson, a British commander was able to defeat French and Spanish Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Two Effects
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 British Navy would reign supreme for years
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.2 Napoleon had to give up plans for invading Britain
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Napoleon sold Louisiana Purchase to the United States in 1803 for $15 million, about $0.04 an acre.
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Territory gained is a part of 15 states
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.2 Funded future French military operations in Europe
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 In order to focus on European fighting Napoleon and the French lost a valuable sugar producing colony of St. Domingue
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 French troops unable to reverse Haitian Revolution due to disease and effective fighting of former slaves
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Napoleon faced assassination plots but held another plebiscite to see if the French wanted him as as Emperor
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 The results were 99.93% “YES” and .07% “NO”
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 He was crowned French Emperor on December 2nd, 1804 at Notre Dame in Paris
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 System of laws
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Promoted order and authority over individual rights
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Example: Freedom of speech limited
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Signed an agreement with Pope Pius VII
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Recognized influence of Church
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 But rejected Church control in government
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 Majority of people favored this
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Approved changes that both strengthened government and achieved goals of Revolution
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Established an effective..
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Tax collection system
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.2 Banking system
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.2 Dismissed corrupt officials
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.3 Set up lycees to train government workers
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 1800 saw a plebiscite or “a ‘yes or no’ vote of the people” to approve a new constitution
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Napoleon, as first consul, assumed the power of a dictator
2.1.1.1.1.1.2 Finally able to conclude peace agreements with Britain, Austria, and Russia in 1802. First time in ten years France was not at war
2.1.1.1.1.2 “Blow to the state”
2.1.1.1.1.3 Represents a sudden seizure of power
2.1.1.1.1.4 People wanted stability
2.1.1.1.1.5 Napoleon set himself up as the first consul (out of 3) in yet another new system of government
2.1.1.1.2 Napoleon led a “coup d’etat”, or bloodless takeover against the unpopular government
2.1.1.1.3 Napoleon’s Army seized power and dissolved the Directory and set up a Triumvirate
2.1.1.2 Appointed by Directory to lead the army against Austria and Sardinia
2.1.1.3 Won a series of victories in Italy
2.1.1.4 Ran out of steam in Egypt
2.1.2 Born on island of Corsica
2.1.3 Joined French army during Revolution
2.1.4 Held off royalist army in 1795 with cannons
2.1.5 Praised as a hero
2.2 From 1795-1799, Napoleon rose from obscurity to become known as one of the greatest generals of all time
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