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Supervolcanoes

Description

Mind Map of summary of Supervolcanoes
haydena
Mind Map by haydena, updated more than 1 year ago
haydena
Created by haydena over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Supervolcanoes
  1. Case Study
    1. Yellowstone
      1. Located in Yellowstone National Park, North America
        1. Volcanic Features
          1. 'Old Faithful' the geyser
            1. Boiling/bubbling mud
              1. Hot springs
                1. Caldera shaped not coned shaped
                  1. You can't see the edge
                  2. 1000x bigger than average volcano
                    1. Multiple vents
                      1. Much bigger & more powerful than normal volcanoes
                      2. Worldwide effects if it erupted
                        1. Indications of Eruption
                          1. Huge earthquakes
                            1. Seismometers off the scale
                              1. Rising levels of CO2
                              2. Hydrothermal explosions
                                1. Harmonic Tremors
                                  1. More volcanic activity
                                2. 7 Known Supervolcanoes worldwide
                                  1. 1. Yellowstone Caldera - North Americxa
                                    1. Case Study
                                    2. 2. Lake Toba - Indonesia
                                      1. 3. Taupo Caldera - New Zealand
                                        1. 4. Valles Caldera - New Mexico
                                          1. 5. Long Valley Caldera - North America
                                            1. 6. Aira Caldera - Japan
                                              1. 7. Asia
                                            2. Characteristics
                                              1. If a Supervolcano was to erupt it would be 1000x times bigger than the eruption of Mount St Helens
                                                1. Flat
                                                  1. Unlike normal volcanoes which are like mountains, Supervolcanoes are flat
                                                  2. Big
                                                    1. Supervolancoes cover a large area and are much bigger than normal volcanoes
                                                    2. Caldera
                                                      1. Supervolcanoes have a Caldera a depression which forms after they erupt. Normal volcanoes just have a crater at the top
                                                    3. Effects
                                                      1. Worldwide
                                                        1. Air becomes polluted
                                                          1. Less sunlight
                                                            1. Ice age
                                                            2. Droughts
                                                              1. Air travel halted
                                                                1. Crops fail
                                                                  1. Starvation
                                                                    1. Death
                                                                    2. Disease
                                                                      1. Illness
                                                                        1. Death
                                                                    3. Almost all life wiped out
                                                                      1. Nearly everything is destroyed
                                                                        1. Resources lost
                                                                        2. Sulphur dioxide makes atmosphere much colder
                                                                          1. Ice age
                                                                          2. Ash blown around
                                                                            1. Buildings collapse
                                                                              1. Suffocation
                                                                                1. Death
                                                                                2. Buried Alive
                                                                                  1. Breathing problems
                                                                                3. USA
                                                                                  1. Lots of Ash, magma and rock
                                                                                    1. Power cuts
                                                                                      1. Water contaminated
                                                                                        1. Air hard to breathe
                                                                                          1. Storms
                                                                                            1. Pyroclastic Flows
                                                                                              1. 500mph+ and 800C+
                                                                                              2. 100km radius
                                                                                                1. Food, plants & animals wiped out
                                                                                                  1. Millions are killed
                                                                                                    1. Thousands are injured
                                                                                                      1. Suphur gas poisions air
                                                                                                        1. 25000x3 of magma
                                                                                                          1. Inhabitable
                                                                                                            1. Buildings collapse
                                                                                                              1. Ash
                                                                                                                1. Suffocation
                                                                                                                  1. Death
                                                                                                          2. Formation
                                                                                                            1. 1. Rising magma cannot escape and a large bulge appears on the surface
                                                                                                              1. 2. Cracks appear in the surface of the dome or bulge and gas, ash, lava and rocks erupt from the magma chamber
                                                                                                                1. 3. The magma chamber collapses forming a depression called a Caldera
                                                                                                              2. Supervolcanoes form over Hotspots and on destructive subduction plate margins - where the Oceanic plate goes underneath the contential plate
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