Education Psycology

xxtasha_93xx
Mind Map by xxtasha_93xx, updated more than 1 year ago
xxtasha_93xx
Created by xxtasha_93xx over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Education Psycology, created by xxtasha_93xx on 11/30/2013.

Resource summary

Education Psycology
1 Development and Diversity
1.1 Cognitive and Linguistic Development
1.1.1 General Principles of Human Development
1.1.1.1 The Multiple Layers of Environmental Influence: Bronfenbrenner's Theory
1.1.2 Role of Brain in Learning and Developmnt
1.1.3 Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
1.1.3.1 Piaget's Basic Assumptions
1.1.3.1.1 Children are active and motivated learners
1.1.3.1.2 Children construct rather than absorb knowledge
1.1.3.1.3 Children continually learn new things through two complementary processes: assimilation and accommodation
1.1.3.1.4 Interaction with one's physical and social environments are essential for cognitive development
1.1.3.1.5 The process of equilibration promotes toward increasingly complex thought
1.1.3.1.6 In part as a result of maturational changes in the brain, children think in qualitatively different ways at different ages
1.1.3.2 Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
1.1.4 Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
1.1.4.1 Vygotsky's Basic Assumptions
1.1.4.1.1 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
1.1.4.2 Scaffolding
1.1.4.3 Piaget vs Vygotsky
1.2 Personal and Social Development
1.2.1 Personality Development
1.2.1.1 Temperament
1.2.1.2 Environment Influences on Personality Development
1.2.1.2.1 Family Dynamics
1.2.1.2.1.1 Child Maltreatment
1.2.1.3 The "Big Five" Personality Traits
1.2.2 Development of a Sense of Self
1.2.2.1 Factors Influencing Sense of Self
1.2.2.2 Development Changes in Sense of Self
1.2.2.2.1 Childhood
1.2.2.2.2 Early Adolesence
1.2.2.2.3 Late Adolescence
1.2.2.3 Diversity in Sense of Self
1.2.2.3.1 Gender Differences
1.2.2.3.2 Cultural and Ethnic Differences
1.2.3 Development of Peer Relationships and Interpersonal Understandings
1.2.3.1 Roles of Peers in Children's Development
1.2.3.1.1 Peer Pressure
1.2.3.2 Characteristics of Peer Relationships
1.2.3.2.1 Friendships
1.2.3.2.2 Cliques
1.2.3.2.3 Crowds
1.2.3.2.4 Gangs
1.2.3.2.5 Romantic Relationships
1.2.3.2.6 Popularity and Social Isolation
1.2.3.2.6.1 Popular Students
1.2.3.2.6.2 Rejected Students
1.2.3.3 Social Cognition
1.2.3.3.1 Aggression
1.2.3.4 Technology and Peer Relationships
1.2.4 Moral and Prosocial Development
1.3 Individual Differences and Special Education Needs
1.3.1 Cognitive Styles and Dispositions
1.3.1.1 Stimulation seeking
1.3.1.2 Need for cognitive
1.3.1.3 Critical Thinking
1.3.1.4 Open-mindedness
1.4 Group Differences
1.4.1 Cultural and Ethnic Differences
1.4.1.1 Navigating Different Cultures at Home and at School
1.4.1.1.1 Culture Shock
1.4.1.2 Examples of Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
1.4.1.2.1 Language and Dialect
1.4.1.2.1.1 Standard English
1.4.1.2.1.2 Dialect
1.4.1.2.1.3 African American English
1.4.1.2.2 Talkativeness and Verbal Assertiveness
1.4.1.2.3 Eye Contact
1.4.1.2.4 Personal Space
1.4.1.3 Creating a Culturally Inclusive Classroom Environment
1.4.2 Gender Differences
1.4.2.1 Physical Activity and Motor Skills
1.4.2.2 Cognitive and Academic Abilities
1.4.2.2.1 Visual-spatial Ability
1.4.3 Socioeconomic Differences
1.4.3.1 Poor nutrition and health
1.4.3.2 Inadequate housing and frequent moves
1.4.3.3 Exposure to toxic substances
1.4.3.4 Unhealthy social environments
1.4.3.5 Emotional stress
2 Learning and Motivation
2.1 Learning, Cognition, and Memory
2.1.1 Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology
2.1.1.1 Behaviorism
2.1.1.2 Social cognitive theory
2.1.1.3 Cognitive psychology
2.1.1.4 Contextual Theories
2.1.2 A Model of Human Memry
2.1.2.1 Information processing theory
2.1.3 Long-term Memory Storage
2.1.3.1 Rehearsal
2.1.3.2 Elaboration
2.1.3.3 Orginization
2.1.3.4 Visual imagery
2.2 Complex Cognitive Processes
2.2.1 Metacognition and Learning Startegies
2.2.2 Transfer
2.2.3 Problem Solving
2.2.4 Creativity
2.2.4.1 Convergent thinking
2.2.4.2 Divergent thinking
2.2.5 Critical Thinking
2.2.6 Diversity in Creativity, Critical Thinking, and Other Complex Cognitive Procsses
2.3 Learning and Cognition in Context
2.3.1 Bsics Assumptions of Contextual Theories
2.3.2 Social Interactions as Context
2.3.3 Cultures as Contexts
2.3.4 Society and Technology as Contexts
2.3.5 Academic Context Domains as Contexts
2.4 Behaviorist Views of Learning
2.4.1 Instrumental conditioning
2.4.2 Reinforcer
2.4.2.1 Increase
2.4.3 Punishment
2.4.3.1 decrease
2.4.4 Operant conditioning
2.4.5 Positive reinforcement
2.4.6 Removal punishment
2.4.7 Token economy
2.5 Social Cognitive Views of Learning
2.5.1 The Social Cognitive View of Reinforcement and Punishment
2.5.2 Modleing
2.5.2.1 Mirror neuron
2.5.2.2 Model
2.5.2.3 Cognitive modeling
2.5.3 Self-Efficacy
2.5.3.1 Goals
2.5.3.2 Effort and persistence
2.5.3.3 Learning and Achievment
2.5.4 Self-Regulation
2.6 Motivation and Affect
2.6.1 The Nature of Motivation
2.6.1.1 time on task
2.6.2 Basic Human Needs
2.6.2.1 need for competence
2.6.2.2 self-worth
2.6.3 Cognitive and Sociocultureal Factors in Motivation
2.6.3.1 Interest
2.6.3.2 Value
2.6.3.3 Mastery goal
2.6.3.4 Performance goal
2.6.3.5 Social goal
2.6.3.6 Long-term goal
2.6.4 Affect and Its Effect
2.6.4.1 anxiety
2.6.4.2 threat
2.6.4.3 challenge
3 Classroom Strategies
3.1 Instructional Strategies
3.1.1 Planning for Instruction
3.1.1.1 Task analysis
3.1.1.2 Lesson plan
3.1.2 Teacher-Directed Instructional Strategies
3.1.2.1 Mastery learning
3.1.3 Learner-Directed Instructional Strategies
3.1.3.1 Cooperative learning
3.1.3.2 base group
3.1.3.3 Peer tutoring
3.2 Creating a Productive Learning Environment
3.2.1 Creating a Setting Conducive to Learning
3.2.1.1 Classroom Management
3.2.1.2 Classroom Climate
3.2.1.3 Belongingness
3.2.2 Expanding the sense of Community Beyond the Classroom
3.2.2.1 Cueing
3.2.2.2 Cognitive behavioral therapy
3.2.3 Addressing Aggression and Violence at School
3.3 Classroom Assessment Strategies
3.3.1 The Many Forms and Purposes of Assessment
3.3.1.1 Formative Versus Summative Assessment
3.3.1.1.1 Formative BEFORE/DURING
3.3.1.1.2 Summative After
3.3.1.2 Informal vs formal
3.3.1.3 Paper-Pencil vs Performance
3.3.1.4 Traditional vs Authentic
3.3.1.5 Standardized texts vs teacher- developed
3.3.1.6 Criterion-Referenced vs Norm-Referenced
3.3.2 Enhancing Learning through Formative Assessments and Other Assessment Practices
3.3.2.1 Rubric
3.3.2.2 Dynamic assessment
3.3.3 Important Qualities of Good Assessments
3.3.3.1 Standarsization
3.3.3.2 Validity
3.3.4 Assessing Learning and Performance Both Informally and Formally
3.3.4.1 Halo effect
3.3.4.2 Horns effect
3.3.4.3 Recognition task
3.3.4.4 Recall task
3.3.5 Taking Student Diversity into Account in Classroom Assessments
3.4 Summarizing Students' Achievement and Abilities
3.4.1 Summarizing the Results of a Single Assessment
3.4.1.1 Raw Scores
3.4.1.2 Criterion-Referenced Scores
3.4.1.3 Norm-Referenced Scores
3.4.1.4 Standard Deviation
3.4.1.5 IQ Test
3.4.1.6 ETS score
3.4.2 Determining Final Class Grades
3.4.3 Using Portfolios
3.4.4 Standardized Tests
3.4.5 High-Stakes Testing and Accountability
3.4.5.1 No Child Left Behind Act
3.4.6 Taking Student Diversity into Account
3.4.7 Confidentiality and Communication about Assessment Results
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