The Protists

fidafid96
Mind Map by fidafid96, updated more than 1 year ago
fidafid96
Created by fidafid96 about 6 years ago
4
0

Description

microbiology- the protists

Resource summary

The Protists
  1. Distribution
    1. Chemoorganotrophic-recycling nitrogen and phosphorus
      1. Terrestrial & planktonic forms
        1. Parasitic forms cause disease
          1. Grow in a wide variety of moist habitats
          2. Morphology
            1. Pellicle – support
              1. Cytoplasm subdivided into outer gelatinous ectoplasm & inner fluid region (endoplasm)
                1. Plasma membrane similar to multicellular plants/animals
                  1. Vacuoles
                    1. Contracile (maintain osmoregulation)
                      1. Phagocytic (ingestion of food)
                      2. Energy production
                        1. Photosynthetic protists (*chloroplasts & mitochondria)
                          1. Aerobic chemoorganotrophic protists (*mitochondria)
                          2. Cilia/ Flagella- motility/feeding
                          3. Nutrition
                            1. Protozoa- Chemorganotrophic protists
                              1. Saprophytes (nutrients from dead organic matter)
                                1. Osmotrophy (absorb soluble products)
                                  1. Holozoic nutrition (solid nutrients- phagocytosis)
                                  2. Photoautotrophic protists
                                    1. Strict anaerobes
                                      1. Photosynthesis I & II
                                      2. Mixotrophic protists
                                        1. Organic and inorganic carbon compounds used simultaneously
                                      3. Reproductive cells & structures
                                        1. Asexual (binary fission)
                                          1. Sexual (fusion of gametes in syngamy process)
                                          2. PROTOZOA
                                            1. Different from…
                                              1. Slime mold (lack of fruiting body)
                                                1. Yeast & Fungi (by their motility & lack of cell wall)
                                                  1. Prokaryotes (relatively larger, eukaryote)
                                                    1. Algae (no chlorophyll)
                                                    2. Structure
                                                      1. Unicellular, eukaryote
                                                        1. Predatory / parasitic
                                                          1. Some are pathogenic
                                                            1. Colourless & motile
                                                              1. Found in water & soil
                                                              2. Nutrition
                                                                1. Dinoflagellates & Euglenoids (capable of photosynthesis)
                                                                  1. Foods are obtained through
                                                                    1. Ingestion
                                                                      1. Phagocytosis
                                                                        1. Pinocytosis
                                                                          1. Absorption
                                                                          2. Mostly are aerobic heterotrophs, some are capable of anaerobic growth
                                                                          3. Diversity
                                                                            1. Microscopic (10-200 micrometer)
                                                                              1. Occur singly or in colonies
                                                                                1. Some are capable of encystment
                                                                                  1. May be housed in a shell (lorica) eg: foraminiferans
                                                                                    1. May be parasitic (Trypanasoma) / symbiotic (Joenia)
                                                                                      1. May or may not be pigmented
                                                                                        1. Swim freely/ in contact with a substratum / be sedentary
                                                                                        2. Major groups in Protozoa
                                                                                          1. Archaezoa
                                                                                            1. Free living
                                                                                              1. Parasitic / Pathogenic
                                                                                                1. Trypanosome gambiense
                                                                                                  1. Flagellated (2 or more)
                                                                                                    1. Freshwater
                                                                                                      1. Move in a whiplike manner
                                                                                                        1. African sleeping sickness in human
                                                                                                        2. Rhizopoda
                                                                                                          1. Amoebas
                                                                                                            1. Phagocytosis- obtain food
                                                                                                              1. Movement-pseudopoda
                                                                                                                1. Cause amobic dysentery in human
                                                                                                                  1. Eg: Amoeba histolytics
                                                                                                                    1. Habitat- freshwater, marine
                                                                                                                    2. Ciliophora
                                                                                                                      1. Possess cilia
                                                                                                                        1. Presence of gullet/cytosome- ingestion
                                                                                                                          1. Balantidium coli- human parasite (Dysentery)
                                                                                                                            1. Habitat- freshwater/marine
                                                                                                                              1. Best known- paramecium
                                                                                                                                1. Nuclei
                                                                                                                                  1. Micronucleus (inheritance & sexual reproduction)
                                                                                                                                    1. Macronucleus (production of mRNA)
                                                                                                                                  2. Apicomplexa
                                                                                                                                    1. Not motile in mature form
                                                                                                                                      1. Obligate parasites
                                                                                                                                        1. Complex life cycle- transmission between several hosts
                                                                                                                                          1. Plasmodium vivas – causing malaria
                                                                                                                                            1. Taxoplasma- causing taxoplasmosis
                                                                                                                                        2. Algae
                                                                                                                                          1. Characteristics
                                                                                                                                            1. Naked reproduction structure
                                                                                                                                              1. Asexual (all)
                                                                                                                                                1. Sexual (some)
                                                                                                                                                2. Mostly photoautotrophic
                                                                                                                                                  1. Contain chlorophyll
                                                                                                                                                    1. Has a simple morphological construction
                                                                                                                                                      1. Requires water
                                                                                                                                                      2. Habitat
                                                                                                                                                        1. Aquatic habitat-fresh water, marine & brackish
                                                                                                                                                          1. Few in dry soils
                                                                                                                                                            1. Acidic habitat
                                                                                                                                                              1. Mostly in moist soils & artificial aquatic habitat
                                                                                                                                                              2. Motility
                                                                                                                                                                1. If motile, due to flagella
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Single flagella- Euglena
                                                                                                                                                                    1. 2/4 polar flagella- Chlorophyta
                                                                                                                                                                    2. Non-motile in vegetative stage & form motile gametes only during sexual reproduction
                                                                                                                                                                    3. Distribution
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Terrestrial (moist rocks, trees, soils)
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Primarily aquatic
                                                                                                                                                                          1. 3 types
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Benthic
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Planktonic
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Neustonic
                                                                                                                                                                              2. Reproduction
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Sexual ( Oogonia, Anthredia)
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Asexual
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Fragmentation
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Spores
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Binary fission
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Ecology
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Seaweed- provide habitat, human food
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Macroscopic form (phytoplankton- food base for marine food chains)
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Primary producers of the oceans
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Production of neurotoxins
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Algal bloom
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Taxonomy
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Rhodophyta
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Reddish colour
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Chlorophylls a & d, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Red pigment absorb blue light
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Store glucose polymers
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Chrysophyta
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Important in global carbon cycling
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Store oil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Chlorophylls a & c
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Unicellular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Golden-brown algae
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Phaephyta
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Brownish colour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Chlorophylls a & c, xantophylls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Macroscopic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Store carbohydrate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Chlorophyta
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Chlorophyll a & b
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Cellulose cell walls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Store glucose polymers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Green algae
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Pyrrophyta
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Unicellular plankton
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Brownish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Store starch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Cause ‘red tides’- gives ocean a deep red colour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Some produce neurotoxins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Chlorophylls a & c
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Euglenophyta
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Green colour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Chlorophylls a & b, carotene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Store glucose polymers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Rigid plasma membrane (pellicle)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. No sexual reproduction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Slime molds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Resemble fungi in appearance & life style
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Three division
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Acrasiomycota (Cellular slime molds)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Individual amoeboid cells (unicellular)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Feed phagocytically
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Divide by mitosis and cytokinesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Myxomycota (Plasmodial slime molds)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Phagocytosized dead material
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Saprophytes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Multinucleated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Lack cell wall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Glistening, viscous masses of slime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Peronosporomycetes (water molds)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Some grow in cottony masses on dead algae & animals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Some parasites of fish gills
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Plant disease (blue mold & Irish potato blight)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Egg fungi- diploid & no chitin in cell wall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Distribution & Function of Molds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Engulf bacteria as predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. As decomposers & consumer in the ecosystem
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Recycling of nutrients
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Cause disease in plants (tobacco plants, potatoes, grapes)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Moist terrestrial habitats (e.g. soil, decaying wood, dung)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Show full summary Hide full summary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Similar

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          THE PROTIST MIND MAP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          hasvinee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PROTISTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Syazana Razak
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Animal Parasitism: Medical, Veterinary and Ecological Aspect
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Zoë white
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          General info and classification of protozoa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hannah Lysczek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PROTOZOA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          aina syazlin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Classification of Algae
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          aina syazlin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Algae Diversity Test - Marine Botany
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          lclark2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Taxonomy Roscoff shore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Salvatore Giordano
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Parasite ID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Alison Rae
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cyanobacteria and Green Algae
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cobalt garcia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          All about the protist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          farah atiqah