CCEA Chemistry Core

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SCIENCE MINDMAP CHEMISTRY
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CCEA Chemistry Core
1 Atoms
1.1 Nucleus
1.1.1 Protons and Neutrons
1.2 Arrangement in electrons in energy levels.
1.2.1 Chemical properties
1.2.1.1 Chemical equation
1.2.1.2 Shown in periodic table
1.3 Bonding
1.3.1 Ionic
1.3.1.1 Metals and non metals
1.3.1.1.1 Metlas lose electons
1.3.1.1.1.1 Positive ions
1.3.1.1.2 Non metals gain electons
1.3.1.1.2.1 Negative ions
1.3.2 Covalent
1.3.2.1 Two non metals
1.3.2.1.1 Share electons
2 Rocks
2.1 Limestone
2.1.1 Calcium carbonate
2.1.2 Thermal decomposition
2.1.2.1 Calcium oxide
2.1.2.1.1 + water
2.1.2.1.1.1 Calcium hydroxide
2.1.2.2 Carbon dioxide
3 Metals
3.1 Extraction
3.1.1 Electrolysis
3.1.1.1 More energy needed
3.1.1.1.1 Expensive
3.1.1.2 Aluminium and titanium
3.1.1.2.1 Low density - do not corrode
3.1.1.3 Copper purified
3.1.2 Reduction with carbon
3.1.2.1 Less reactive than carbon
3.1.3 Unreactive metals
3.1.3.1 Found in earth's crust
3.1.4 Bioleaching
3.1.4.1 Microorganisms
3.1.5 Phytomining
3.1.5.1 Plants
4 Fuels
4.1 reaction with oxygen
4.2 Combustion products
4.2.1 Environmental impact
4.2.1.1 Carbon dioxide
4.2.1.1.1 Global warming
4.2.1.2 Sulphur dioxide
4.2.1.2.1 Acid rain
4.2.1.3 Nitrogen oxide
4.2.1.4 Reduced using biofuels
4.2.1.4.1 Renewable
4.2.1.4.2 Ethanol
4.3 Crude oil
4.3.1 Mixture of different compounds
4.3.1.1 Hydrocarbons
4.3.1.1.1 Alkanes
4.3.1.1.1.1 Saturated
4.3.1.1.1.2 More hydrogen atoms
4.3.1.1.2 Cracking
4.3.1.1.2.1 Heating with steam
4.3.1.1.2.2 Alkanes
4.3.1.1.2.3 Alkenes
4.3.1.1.2.3.1 Unsaturated
4.3.1.1.2.3.1.1 Turn bromine water to colourless
4.3.2 Fractional distillation
4.3.2.1 Evaportating
4.3.2.1.1 Condense at different temperatures
4.3.2.1.1.1 Their boiling points
4.3.2.1.1.1.1 Low boiling points
4.3.2.1.1.1.1.1 less viscous
4.3.2.1.1.1.1.2 burn more
5 Reaction of metals with water.
5.1 Calcium
5.1.1 The metal sank to the bottom.
5.1.2 They rose to the top and fizzed
5.1.3 Bubbles of a gas
5.1.4 Indicator turned purple
5.2 sodium
5.2.1 Forms a ball
5.2.2 Floats on surface
5.2.3 Indicator turns purple
5.2.4 Moves rapidly
5.2.5 Fully doissoles
5.3 Potassium
5.3.1 Burns with a lilac flame
5.3.2 Floats on surface
5.3.3 Indicator turns purple
5.3.4 Bubbles
5.3.5 Colourless solution.
6 Collision theory
6.1 Activation energy
6.1.1 is when you break down the bonds at the start of the reaction to start the reaction.
6.1.2 The activation energy is required to break down the bonds so the atoms can move freely.
6.1.2.1 Once this happens the reaction should begin.
6.1.2.1.1 the reaction will then require less energy through out the rest of the reaction.
6.2 Catalysts.
6.2.1 Catalysts increase the rate of reaction by providing an alternative route.
6.2.1.1 Better catalysts can result in finding lower energy roots and increased yeuild
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