220.127.116.11 In order to act morally we must
ignore our desires and act
3.2 Phenonemal: Animals
4 Kant's Moral Theory
4.1 To act morally, you must be able to exercise
FREEDOM or Autonomy of the Will
4.2 Good Will
4.2.1 Only 'will' (e.g. our self-will) can be unconditionally good
and exercise pure Practical Reason.
4.2.2 Abilities, talents, virtues and consequences
count for nothing as we cannot control them
4.3 Moral truths are A PRIORI SYNTHETIC
4.3.1 You can know something without
experiencing it, but experiencing it will
4.3.2 Synthetic A priori truths include all moral rules. You can’t prove
that it’s wrong to lie by observing what happens when people lie.
However, Kant says that if lying were right, it would make talking
pointless. The fact that we can communicate meaningfully means
that lying must be wrong ‘a priori’.
4.4 An "ought implies a can"
4.5 "morals is not properly the doctrine of how we are to make ourselves happy but of how we are to
become worthy of happiness"
5.1 Duty must be done for Duties sake only,
not from whether you or others benefit
from the action
5.1.1 Actions motives must be pure (practical reason)
5.1.2 Doing your duty for any other reason -
inclinations, self-interest, affection - doesn't
5.1.3 You do something because of its
internal worth and not because of
5.1.4 Happiness should not be the
foundation for acting morally
18.104.22.168 "Good" and "Right" are not the same thing.
5.2 "we are not moral for the sake of love, but for
duty's sake only"
6 Hypothetical Imperative
6.1 An action done to reach a desire
6.1.1 E.G. "I want to go to university,
therefore I must get good grades"
7 Categorical l Imperative
7.1 Three formulations
7.1.1 Treat people as and ENDS not a MEANS
22.214.171.124 You can't use people to get what you want
126.96.36.199 It can only be part of your duty if it
can be applied to everyone alll
around the world.
7.1.3 Act as if you were a member of the
KINGDOM OF ENDS
188.8.131.52 Kingdom of ends = a society of rational beings, each of whom
are treated as and 'end' - a free autonomous agent
8 The Three Postulates of Practical Reason
8.1.1 If you couldn’t act freely, you
wouldn’t have a sense that you
ought to do certain actions - which
184.108.40.206 You cannot achieve the good in this lifetime, so there must be an afterlife
8.2.1 SUMMUM BONUM cannot be achieved in
this life therefore there must be an after
220.127.116.11 You cannot achieve the good in this lifetime, so there must be an afterlife
8.3.1 Based on MORAL proof, not THEOLOGICAL proof.
8.3.2 There must be a God and an afterlife because
there has to be some sort of reward for acting
18.104.22.168 Accepting that something is a right action presumes that the world is
designed so that doing right leads to happiness, so there must be a God.
22.214.171.124.1 You cannot achieve the good in this lifetime, so there must be an afterlife
8.3.3 There is an ideal state where the
reward for acting morally (happiness) is
united with virtue
126.96.36.199 This is SUMMUM BONUM.
188.8.131.52.1 Ultimate happiness achieve
through fulfilling ones duty,
184.108.40.206.2 the singular and overriding end
which human beings ought to
220.127.116.11.3 "the highest good"
9.1 It's abstract and isn't easily applied
to moral situations
9.2 Unrealistic as people rarely act
from practical reason or from
duty's sense only
9.3 The outcome is important too,
not just the action or motive.
9.4 Doesn't clarify the difference
between duties and what to do if