Challenges to the Rural World

juliasutton
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

A-Level Geography (GCSE) Mind Map on Challenges to the Rural World, created by juliasutton on 12/07/2013.

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juliasutton
Created by juliasutton almost 6 years ago
GCSE Geography Sustainability
EllieFlint
Economic Change Case Studies and Examples
Alex Collins
Transportation Processes
Alex Collins
History- Home Front WW1
jessmitchell
Chemistry C1
Chloe Winn
GCSE Geography Climate Change
EllieFlint
Water world and river processes
Anna Hollywood
River Processes
Alex Collins
Erosion Processes
Alex Collins
coastal landscapes
meg watts
Challenges to the Rural World
1 lake district
1.1 Challenges
1.1.1 farming
1.1.1.1 Lots of land is too steep
1.1.1.1.1 to be ploughed
1.1.1.1.1.1 so soil is infertile and rocky
1.1.1.2 though climate
1.1.1.2.1 temperature falls by 1 degree every 150m in height
1.1.1.2.1.1 more days of frost higher up
1.1.1.2.2 Lots of snow in mountains
1.1.1.2.2.1 From October to May
1.1.1.2.3 less sun on the mountains
1.1.1.2.3.1 compared to the coast
1.1.1.2.4 lots more rain
1.1.1.3 hard so not many young people want to stay
1.1.2 Tourism
1.1.2.1 Cause congestion on roads
1.1.2.2 Positves
1.1.2.2.1 Lots of money
1.1.2.2.2 Lots of work
1.1.2.2.3 without it there would probably be few services
1.1.2.2.3.1 like buses
1.1.2.2.4 brings investment
1.1.2.3 seasonal employment
1.1.2.3.1 low paid
1.1.2.3.2 part time
1.1.3 Rural isolation
1.1.3.1 Far from cities
1.1.3.1.1 like Manchester
1.1.3.2 flood and cold cut people off
1.1.3.3 long journey to school
1.1.3.4 most local roads and windy
1.1.3.4.1 cause congestion due to more cars from tourists
1.1.3.4.2 hard to survive without a car
1.1.4 Counter urbanisation
1.1.4.1 Ageing population
1.1.4.1.1 young people moving away
1.1.4.2 increasing population
1.1.4.2.1 older people moving from cities to retire
1.1.4.2.2 causing problems with housing
1.1.5 Housing
1.1.5.1 Lots of second homes
1.1.5.1.1 and holiday lets
1.1.5.1.1.1 lead to increasing prices
1.1.5.1.1.1.1 unaffordable for locals
1.1.5.1.2 an lead to businesses being closed
1.1.5.1.2.1 because people are not there to spend money most of the time
1.1.5.1.3 40% in Ambleside
1.1.6 Changing services
1.1.6.1 financial cuts causing bus services to reduce
1.1.6.2 in villages shops face competition
1.1.6.2.1 causing pubs to close down etc...
1.1.6.3 hospitals are only in large towns
1.1.6.3.1 can be gard to get to in summer traffic
1.2 Cumbria
1.3 Popular National Park
1.4 Work
1.4.1 Tourism
1.4.1.1 hotels
1.4.1.2 Restaurants
1.4.1.3 provides 33% of jobs
1.4.2 Farming
1.4.2.1 Only 2%
1.4.2.2 few job oppurtunities
1.4.2.2.1 because it's cheaper to higher contractors to do the work
1.4.2.3 landscape would look very different with out it
1.4.3 Tertiary
1.4.4 little in quarternary industries
1.4.4.1 few high paying
1.5 attractive landscape for activities and sightseeing
2 Diversification
2.1 Low Sizergh Barn
2.1.1 dairy farm
2.1.1.1 educates people about countryside
2.1.1.1.1 & where food comes from
2.1.2 gift shop and cafe
2.1.2.1 sells own produce
2.1.3 farm based
2.1.4 Lake distrcit
2.2 Holmescales
2.2.1 hold corprete events for companies
2.2.1.1 to develop team skills
2.2.1.2 e.g paintballing
2.2.1.2.1 & adventure challenges
2.2.2 family events too!
2.2.3 Non farm based
2.3 because...
2.3.1 business is threatened
2.3.1.1 because of sudden events
2.3.2 whole income can be risked by one event
2.3.2.1 tripled hay prices in snowy winters of 09 and 10
2.3.2.2 Chernobyl explosion brought contaminated rain
2.3.3 have to expand business for a second income
2.3.4 EU encourages it and gives grants for it
2.4 widen range of goods and services
2.4.1 farmbased
2.4.1.1 or not
2.4.1.1.1 e.g. campsites
2.4.1.1.2 activites use farmland for different purposes
2.4.1.1.2.1 include other tourist facilites
2.4.1.1.2.1.1 drawing people to the lake district
2.4.1.1.2.1.1.1 day activities
2.4.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 or specialist holidays
2.4.1.2 e.g. organic farming or farm shops
3 Malawi
3.1 Middle Shire
3.1.1 Southern Malawi
3.1.2 Soil ersoion
3.1.2.1 pressure to create more farmland
3.1.2.1.1 due to rising demand for food
3.1.2.1.1.1 due to rising popuation
3.1.2.1.2 increasing price of tobacoo
3.1.2.1.2.1 people have to grow more to make the same amount of money
3.1.2.2 deforestation
3.1.2.2.1 Malawi has lost 13% of forests
3.1.2.2.2 impacts
3.1.2.2.2.1 heavy rain on clear slopes lead to surface run off
3.1.2.2.2.1.1 causing soil erosion
3.1.2.2.2.2 rivers and lakes have silted up with eroded soil
3.1.2.2.2.2.1 silting behind HEP dams reduces water flow
3.1.2.2.2.2.1.1 and reducing production of HEP
3.1.2.2.2.3 threatened eco-tourism
3.1.2.2.2.3.1 varying wildlife at risk
3.1.2.2.2.3.1.1 destruction of habitat
3.1.2.3 saving the soil
3.1.2.3.1 intergovernmental organisation
3.1.2.3.1.1 Japanese and Malawi government
3.1.2.3.2 project: COVAMS
3.1.2.3.2.1 community vitalization and afforesttion in Middle Shire
3.1.2.3.2.2 involves locals conserving soil and re-planting trees
3.1.2.3.2.3 tackling causes of problem
3.1.2.3.2.3.1 building rock barriers across streams
3.1.2.3.2.3.1.1 to reduce soil loss in rainy seasons
3.1.2.3.2.3.2 training villagers in conserving soil and tree planting
3.1.2.3.2.3.3 steep hillsides are 'stepped' to reduce surface run-off
3.1.2.3.2.3.4 growing fast growing trees to restore forests
3.1.2.3.2.4 intermediate technology
3.1.2.3.2.4.1 local materials
3.1.2.3.2.4.2 low-tech solutions
3.1.2.3.2.5 has improved crop yields & production of HEP due to a reduction in silt
3.2 Challenges
3.2.1 problems for farmers
3.2.1.1 increasing fertiliser costs
3.2.1.1.1 unaffordable
3.2.1.1.2 without fertilisers
3.2.1.1.2.1 farmers produce less
3.2.1.1.2.2 farmers earn less
3.2.1.1.3 due to rising oil costs
3.2.1.2 Falling tobacco prices
3.2.1.2.1 lots of farmers rely on tobbacco and lost all their money
3.2.1.3 climate change
3.2.1.3.1 will affect Africa more than any other continent
3.2.1.3.2 causing
3.2.1.3.2.1 water shortages
3.2.1.3.2.1.1 as temperature rises
3.2.1.3.2.1.2 decreasing rainfall
3.2.1.3.2.1.3 drought more often
3.2.1.3.2.1.4 steams and rivers dry up
3.2.1.3.2.2 Food shortages
3.2.1.3.2.2.1 caused by water shortages
3.2.1.3.2.3 Increased desertifcation
3.2.1.4 Lives are limited to low crop yields
3.2.1.4.1 don't have enough money for medical care or school fees
3.2.2 rural isolation
3.2.2.1 Isolated with poor infrastructure
3.2.2.1.1 when roads flood
3.2.2.1.1.1 rural areas can be cut off
3.2.2.1.2 can take several hours to travel just 20km to market towns
3.2.2.1.3 rural telecommunications vary
3.2.2.1.3.1 services are slow and congested
3.2.2.1.3.1.1 government is encouraging mobile phone usage
3.2.2.1.3.1.1.1 as it is easier than developing landlines
3.2.3 Rural-Urban Migration
3.2.3.1 lots of families in the Northare trapped in poverty
3.2.3.1.1 lives are limited by
3.2.3.1.1.1 low crop yields
3.2.3.1.1.2 small plots
3.2.3.1.1.3 low wages on plantations
3.2.3.1.1.4 paying for school and health care
3.2.3.1.1.4.1 limited health care facilities
3.2.3.1.1.4.1.1 rural families have poorer health
3.2.3.1.1.4.2 primary school is free
3.2.3.1.1.4.2.1 secondary school can cost a family a years income
3.2.3.2 solution
3.2.3.2.1 lots of young men go to cities in search for work
3.2.3.2.1.1 then send money home to increase family income
3.2.3.2.1.2 this means that lots of women and young children are left behind
3.3 Varying rural economy
3.3.1 80% of population works in farming
3.3.1.1 country depends on cash crops for exports
3.3.2 Cash crop plantations
3.3.2.1 plantations were set up by British
3.3.2.1.1 produce most of countries exports
3.3.2.1.1.1 e.g. tea
3.3.2.2 some still owned by British TNCs
3.3.2.3 employ lots of locals
3.3.2.4 exploit those who pick the leaves
3.3.2.4.1 only get about 0.5% of selling price
3.3.3 Tobacco tenants
3.3.3.1 Tobacco earns 10% of Malawi's GDP
3.3.3.2 almost all tobacco growers are tobacco tenants
3.3.3.3 lots are children
3.3.3.3.1 Malawi has highest child labour rate in southern Africa
3.3.3.3.1.1 about 78000 work
3.3.3.4 Tbacco owners allocate farmers a plot to produce a specific amout
3.3.3.4.1 owners lend them fertilisers etc
3.3.3.4.1.1 take out costs from future profits
3.3.3.4.2 supposed to supply food
3.3.3.4.2.1 but often runs out
3.3.3.4.3 many workers
3.3.3.4.3.1 lack medication
3.3.3.4.3.2 lack proper housing
3.3.3.4.3.3 lack clean water
3.3.3.4.3.4 cannot aford to live without children working
3.3.4 Small holders
3.3.4.1 majority of farmers
3.3.4.2 1.8 family farmers
3.3.4.2.1 average of 1 hectare of land per family
3.3.4.2.1.1 most just farm half a hectare
3.3.4.2.2 provide 80% of Malawi's food
3.3.4.3 subsitance farming
3.3.4.3.1 growing maize etc...
3.3.4.3.2 little income
3.3.4.3.2.1 can'r invest in fertiliser
3.3.4.3.2.1.1 become expensive due to collapse of economy
3.3.4.4 people with bigger plots
3.3.4.4.1 produce small quantities of cash crops
3.3.4.4.1.1 though money is usually used for school and health care
3.4 Improvements
3.4.1 development organisations
3.4.1.1 Governments
3.4.1.1.1 national
3.4.1.1.2 reigonal
3.4.1.2 International governmental organisations
3.4.1.3 Non-governmental organisations
3.4.1.3.1 Oxfam
3.4.2 Mushrooms
3.4.2.1 Malawi's government set up
3.4.2.1.1 Sustainable livelihoods programme
3.4.2.1.1.1 promoting growing mushrooms
3.4.2.1.1.1.1 new source of income
3.4.2.1.2 funded by UN
3.4.2.2 helping people grow mushrooms by
3.4.2.2.1 providing training
3.4.2.2.2 offering micro loans
3.4.2.2.2.1 to buy first mushroom compost
3.4.2.2.3 paying for advertising programme
3.4.2.2.3.1 promoting mushrooms as high protein and medicinal properties
3.4.2.3 advantages
3.4.2.3.1 cheap
3.4.2.3.2 sustainable
3.4.2.3.2.1 can use their own waste
3.4.2.3.2.1.1 to make compost
3.4.2.4 Success!
3.4.2.4.1 extra income is being used for further developments
3.4.2.4.1.1 first 2 storey home in village bulit
3.4.2.4.1.2 bakeries started
3.4.3 Fish Farming
3.4.3.1 NGO project
3.4.3.1.1 helping
3.4.3.1.1.1 Familes affected by HIV/AIDS
3.4.3.1.1.1.1 often fall into poverty
3.4.3.1.1.1.1.1 less able to work
3.4.3.2 15 locations
3.4.3.2.1 in Malawi
3.4.3.3 help by
3.4.3.3.1 digging small rein-fed pond
3.4.3.3.1.1 designed for special species
3.4.3.3.1.1.1 tilapia
3.4.3.3.1.1.1.1 feed on aquatic plants and kitchen waste
3.4.3.4 children and elderly can help out
3.4.3.5 benefits
3.4.3.5.1 cheap
3.4.3.5.1.1 fish are fed on waste
3.4.3.5.2 regular incoem
3.4.3.5.3 provides nutrients
3.4.3.5.3.1 Calcium
3.4.3.5.3.2 vitamin A
3.4.3.5.3.3 protein
3.4.3.5.4 led to fall in child malnutrition
3.4.3.5.5 provides water for crops in droughts
3.4.3.5.6 sediment at bottom makes good fertiliser
3.4.3.6 success
3.4.3.6.1 doubled income of 1200 households
3.4.3.6.2 increased fish and veg consumption
3.4.3.6.3 quadrupled fiah farmers
3.4.3.6.4 benefit women
3.4.3.6.4.1 30 % of those taking part
4 India
4.1 Biogas
4.1.1 benefits
4.1.1.1 cooking with produces less smoke
4.1.1.1.1 = less lung conditions
4.1.1.2 women and girls don't spend as long collecting firewood
4.1.1.2.1 have time to go to school
4.1.1.3 cows are kept in the family compund
4.1.1.3.1 making dung collection easier
4.1.1.4 after digestion sludge makes good fertiliser
4.1.1.5 methane produced can power electricity generators
5 Bangladesh
5.1 Grameen Bank
5.1.1 micro-fiance
5.1.2 began 1974
5.1.2.1 helping a few families to help them create bussiness items to sell
5.1.2.1.1 the scheme grew
5.1.2.1.2 by lending small, short term loans
5.1.3 concentrates on ending to:
5.1.3.1 women
5.1.3.1.1 it's harder for them to get money from other banks
5.1.3.2 communities for wells etc...
6 Farm Systems
6.1 simple structure
6.1.1 what goes in determines what goes out
6.2 Inputs
6.2.1 what a farmer invests in a farm
6.2.2 physical
6.2.2.1 relief (height and slope of land)
6.2.2.2 climate (amount of rain and sun)
6.2.2.3 soil quality
6.2.3 Human
6.2.3.1 rent or bank loan
6.2.3.2 labour required
6.2.3.3 cost of fertilisers and machinery etc...
6.2.3.4 energy costs
6.2.4 Custom
6.2.4.1 land ownership rights
6.3 Processes
6.3.1 jobs done to turn inputs to outputs
6.3.1.1 and the challenges that encourage or prevent this
6.3.1.2 ploughing
6.3.1.3 sowing
6.3.1.4 harvesting
6.3.1.5 shearing wool
6.3.2 challenges
6.3.2.1 Physical
6.3.2.1.1 flooding or drought
6.3.2.1.2 winter whether
6.3.2.2 Human
6.3.2.2.1 Changes to family
6.3.2.2.2 changes in prices
6.4 Outputs
6.4.1 any products and what happens to them
6.4.2 products for sale
6.4.2.1 cash crops
6.4.2.2 animal produce
6.4.3 products to be consumed
6.4.3.1 by owner
6.4.3.1.1 subsistence crops
6.4.3.1.2 animal prodce
6.4.3.2 for use on farm
6.4.3.2.1 manure
6.4.3.2.2 seed for the following year
6.4.3.2.3 young animal stock
7 South Africa
7.1 John Taolo Gaetsewe
7.1.1 district in Northern Cape provience
7.1.2 faces major health chllenges
7.1.3 access to health care is limited
7.2 a medical team from a TNC working near desicided to help
7.2.1 set up mobile health clinics
7.2.1.1 bring health care to remote locations
7.2.1.1.1 offering check-ups and treatment
7.2.2 will pay for 2 years
7.2.2.1 will then hand responsibility to government

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