Codifying & implementing Apartheid, 1948-59

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AS - Level History (Apartheid) Mind Map on Codifying & implementing Apartheid, 1948-59, created by Keanna Ki on 30/12/2015.
Keanna Ki
Mind Map by Keanna Ki, updated more than 1 year ago
Keanna Ki
Created by Keanna Ki over 8 years ago
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Resource summary

Codifying & implementing Apartheid, 1948-59
  1. POLITICAL SUPPRESSION & TREASON TRIAL 1956-61
    1. 1956, 156 members leading activists - of the congress alliance were arrested
      1. Gov alleged a conspiracy that the congress movement planned to overthrow the gov by force, with violence & that they espoused communist ideas
      2. BENEFITS FOR OPPOSITION
        1. Provided occasion for congress alliance to meet/ confer & cement relationships
          1. prosecution failed to prove ANC advocated violence/ was communist
            1. used courtroom to publicise their anti-apartheid message in SA & abroad
              1. International attention. Scandinavian countries
                1. membership grew from 5,000 - 1948 to 100,000 -1950s
                  1. "The free world cannot be unconcerned when there is a land where 80% of the people are unfree" dean of Harvard
                  2. UNDERMINED OPPOSITION
                    1. ANC split forming PAC
                      1. End of trial, ANC & PAC outlawed=banned
                        1. Long lasting trial - 5 years - stopped the ability of leaders to campaign & protest
                        2. 1950s gov increasingly concerned with growing influence of congress movement
                        3. TOMLINSON REPORT & THE BANTUSTANS
                          1. BANTUSTANS
                            1. Africans- multiple identities - could see themselves as a member of a clan, zulu SA & Johannesburg worker
                              1. Africans subdivided into their historical chieftaincies & lang groups, but whites would remain whites, no separate bit for white Afrikaners/english Portuguese speaking
                                1. New areas of white-owned land bought to extend homelands- still made up very little % of SA's land area. NP not prepared to divide SA equally as whites wouldn't accept the sacrifice
                                2. BETTERMENT
                                  1. WHY; enviro degradation/soil erosion in the reserves thought by gov to be undermining peasant agriculture, intensifying poverty & driving more A to cities
                                    1. rural families moved into compact villages; deeply resented
                                      1. divide the pastures with barbed wire into smaller paddocks, animals moved from paddock to paddock throughout year to stop overgrazing
                                        1. Strategy that would stop enviro degradation & enable Africans to intensify their farming without destroying the soil & vegetation
                                        2. PURPOSE OF THE TOMLINSON COMMISSION
                                          1. Make apartheid work/ successful
                                            1. Believed that economic development of former reserves had to be heart of Apartheid, 'sustained development of Bantu areas on a large scale' was 'germinal point'
                                              1. REJECTION OF VERWOERD
                                                1. Private land ownership would undermine the power of chiefs on whom he relied on for political support
                                                  1. Felt bantus should develop at their own pace & wouldn't allow outside investment
                                                    1. Landholdings enlarged - millions of a lose land & migrate to cities for work - undermine a central tenet of Apartheid
                                                      1. Didn't want to create subsidised industries that might compete with urban white business
                                                        1. Didn't believe white SA would support expenditure
                                                        2. RECOMMENDATIONS OF TOMLINSON
                                                          1. Advocated major funding for rural industries
                                                            1. Private enterprise, SA & foreign should be encouraged to invest in these areas
                                                              1. Bantustans can be transformed by state investment of £100 million +
                                                                1. Create a class of full-time farmers by increasing size of pot & turning communal into private tenure, implied pushing families off land, in order to create bigger economic units for farming
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