First Crusade

Oliver Callaghan
Mind Map by Oliver Callaghan, updated more than 1 year ago
Oliver Callaghan
Created by Oliver Callaghan over 5 years ago
99
2

Description

AS - Level History (Crusades Year 1) Mind Map on First Crusade, created by Oliver Callaghan on 02/08/2016.

Resource summary

First Crusade
  1. People's/Peasent's Crusade
    1. Urban's appeal meant to be for nobility/knights
      1. but popular preachers spread messege far
        1. Peter the Hermit
          1. group left August 1096
          2. didn't want to kill Jews
          3. Jewish Perspective
            1. some were anti-Semitic
              1. peasents pillaged German lands
                1. like wealth jewish communtiies
                  1. 'infidels' just like Muslims
              2. Cologne/Mainz - Jews massacred
                1. 1000s killed/killed themselves to stop forced conversion
                  1. Prague
                2. Christians doing it for vengence for past crimes
                  1. highly motivated people
                    1. economic looting factor
                3. Byzantine Perspective
                  1. Alexius I Comnenus hoping for mercenary knights
                    1. but got big rabble
                    2. Franks looking for glory
                      1. Massive impact of Alexius's letter realised
                        1. family along too
                          1. really wanted Jerusalem
                          2. Christian Perspective
                            1. poor undisciplined
                              1. badly co-ordinated
                                1. lived off lands they passed through
                                2. Danube region, northern Byzantium, were looted
                                  1. armies met outside constantinople and Alexius had to act due to plundering
                                    1. he ferried mob accross Bosphorus in Aug 1096
                                      1. half of participants massacred by Seljuks at Nicea
                                        1. other half decoyed into ambush then killed
                                          1. Peter the Hermit lived
                                            1. NO ONE made it to Holy Land
                                  2. Muslim Perspective
                                    1. Kilij Arslan Jul 96 learned Franks coming
                                      1. confused by how they acted
                                        1. Franks left camp to forage & raid Nicea
                                          1. Sept group took Zerigordon fortress
                                            1. trapped due to Turks cutting off water supply
                                              1. 21 Oct 96 Franks left Camp
                                                1. Turkish archers fired - quick deaths
                                      2. failure of Peasents
                                        1. made Kilij Arslan ignore warnings
                                          1. about new group coming
                                            1. went east to fight Turkish Damishmends
                                              1. which he thought was his major preoccupation
                                    2. Knights/Leaders
                                      1. Raymond of Toulouse
                                        1. old/rich
                                          1. not in danger of loosing position
                                          2. Very religious
                                            1. wanted to die in Holy Land
                                              1. found Holy L|ance at Antoach - raising morale
                                            2. Won Jerusalem but didn't take crown
                                              1. where christ died thing
                                              2. Ally of Papal Legate Adhemar & Alexius
                                                1. Thought of himself as spiritual leader
                                                  1. had fought moors in spain
                                                    1. Didn't swear oath of loyalty - just friendship
                                                      1. only holy oath to pope
                                                      2. founded Tripoli - maybe wanted to die in Holy land
                                                      3. Bohemond of Taranto
                                                        1. Had thought Byzantines in Greece 81
                                                          1. Son of Guiscard
                                                          2. Little Southern Italian land - lost civil war
                                                            1. Acted courteously in constantinople
                                                              1. Founded Antioach - dwarfed Jeruslam
                                                              2. Tancred d'Hautville
                                                                1. Bohemond's nephew
                                                                  1. tried to sneak past Alexius's oath
                                                                    1. Wanted new terrirotory
                                                                      1. Struggled with Knights Dilema
                                                                        1. until papal indulgance
                                                                      2. Robert of Normandy
                                                                        1. mortgaged Normandy to brother to pay for crusade
                                                                          1. Often stayed in bed due to lack of clothes (poverty)
                                                                            1. Last group to reach Constaninople
                                                                              1. Desperate to prove himself
                                                                                1. as honourable & courageous knight
                                                                                  1. Very pious
                                                                                  2. courageous leadership led to Ascalon 1099 victory
                                                                                    1. became hero
                                                                                    2. Returned to Europe 1100
                                                                                    3. Godfrey de Boullion
                                                                                      1. wanted to pay penance for fighting with Henry IV
                                                                                        1. conflict with Alexius but swore oath
                                                                                          1. Became defender of Holy Sepulchre - refused crown
                                                                                            1. first to breach Jerusalem 'lego tower'
                                                                                            2. Had powerful duchy of lower lorraine
                                                                                              1. arrived Consta december 96
                                                                                              2. Baldwin of Boulogne
                                                                                                1. sold property to crusade
                                                                                                  1. Captured Edessa - stayed there
                                                                                                    1. personal ambitions
                                                                                                    2. Became King of Jerusalem 1100
                                                                                                    3. Stephen of Blois
                                                                                                      1. wife encouraged him to go
                                                                                                        1. Lack of enthuasism - last to reach consta
                                                                                                          1. Loved wealth of Consta
                                                                                                            1. fled from siege of Antioch
                                                                                                          2. Constantinople
                                                                                                            1. Alexius sent envoys to escort armies through lands
                                                                                                              1. prevent pillaging
                                                                                                              2. Alexius took each leader in individually to awe them
                                                                                                                1. showered with gifts
                                                                                                                2. Alexius didn't take personal command
                                                                                                                  1. scared of politics
                                                                                                                    1. but gave Tatikios & advice/supplies
                                                                                                                  2. Siege of Nicea May-June 1097
                                                                                                                    1. Military Tactics
                                                                                                                      1. Turkish Spy told Christians plan of Kilij Arslans May 16th attack
                                                                                                                        1. Christians threw turk's heads of walls as fear tactic
                                                                                                                          1. Siege stategy
                                                                                                                            1. blockade walls - stop supplies
                                                                                                                              1. light bombardment harassed
                                                                                                                            2. Muslim Disunity
                                                                                                                              1. Kilij Arslan had left city undefend fighting Damishmeds
                                                                                                                              2. Byzantine Aid
                                                                                                                                1. Tatikios & Manuel Boutoumites
                                                                                                                                  1. T sent to Nicea
                                                                                                                                    1. commanded ships
                                                                                                                                      1. arrived 16th June to cut off Askanian Lake
                                                                                                                                      2. + 2000 peltasts
                                                                                                                                      3. But truce stopped potential plunder
                                                                                                                                    2. Battle of Dorylaeum 1st July 1097
                                                                                                                                      1. vs. Kilij Arslan
                                                                                                                                        1. River valleys of Anatolia
                                                                                                                                          1. Military Tactics
                                                                                                                                            1. crusader army split in 2
                                                                                                                                              1. 1 group of 10k
                                                                                                                                                1. 1 group of 20-25k
                                                                                                                                                2. Bohemond ordered Knights to dismount & formed defensive circle
                                                                                                                                                  1. reinforcements used cover of hills
                                                                                                                                                  2. Byzantine & Allied Aid
                                                                                                                                                    1. women supplied water from river to men
                                                                                                                                                      1. Taikios's troops & guidance - advice
                                                                                                                                                        1. used 'not to follow feint' advice! - essential
                                                                                                                                                        2. Raymond & Adhemars' cavalry
                                                                                                                                                        3. Spiritual
                                                                                                                                                          1. monks prayed blessings during it
                                                                                                                                                          2. Muslim Disunity
                                                                                                                                                            1. slow & clumsy advance
                                                                                                                                                              1. Danishmed truce gone due to threat of advanced by Rum
                                                                                                                                                            2. Baldwin at Edessa
                                                                                                                                                              1. entered in Feb 1098
                                                                                                                                                                1. Became Baldwin of Edessa March 1098
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Siege of Edessa March-May 1098
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Armenian Christian Peoples - married Arda
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Thoros was weak
                                                                                                                                                                        1. he adopted Baldwin
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Thoros killed
                                                                                                                                                                      2. Led to Kerbogha being delayed on the wap to Antioch
                                                                                                                                                                        1. stopped to besiege Edessa but failed
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Baldwin became intermediary between Armenians and Franks
                                                                                                                                                                        3. Siege & Battle of Antioch Oct 1097-July 1098
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Byzantine & Allied Aid
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Alexius advised not to help at Antioch by Steven of Blois
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Stephen fled before Kerbogha arrived 2nd June
                                                                                                                                                                              2. Byzantines sent limited supplies by sea
                                                                                                                                                                                1. and Taikios
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. he advised Franks to capture countryside for food
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. but he fled maybe due to Bohemond
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Bohemond didn't keep oath to give over Antioch
                                                                                                                                                                                3. Spiritual
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Antioch was home of St Paul
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. When crusaders were trapped between walls
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Adhemar Le Puy advised a 3 day fast & banned all sinning
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. hoped God would help
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. found Holy Lance 14th June due to visions
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. motivated them to climb over walls & take on Kerbohha's army
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. lots of other visions too
                                                                                                                                                                                        3. Military Tactics
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Little military guidance
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Siege was a tactic - starve inside
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Flanking tactic encircled Muslim
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. already educated about feint
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. March around city walls singing hymns to scare enemy
                                                                                                                                                                                                3. Muslim Disunity
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Antioch Leader Yahi Siyan appealed to Ridwan & Duqaq they refused to join
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. but sent seperated forces!
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. 31st Dec 1097 - Duqaq's force defeated
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. 9th Feb 1098 - Ridwan's force defeated
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. 28th June 1098 - Kerbogha's army defeated
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Firouz betrayed Muslim's by allowing knights to climb into city and open gates
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Siege of Jerusalem 7th June - 15th July 1099
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Shia Abbassid Egyptians
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Got there so quick because Muslim leaders gave tribute
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Tactics
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. wood from Genose allowed building of siege towers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. North Godfrey's lego towers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. could be rapidly moved
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. moved it to north west
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. 13th July Godfrey ordered withdrawal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. defenders copied
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. re-assembled tower in weaker northern part
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. filled moat with ram parts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. Spiritual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. weren't going to get up at gates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. 8th July fast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Clergy carried relics of saints
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Peter had vision of ghost of Adhemar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Blind fanacticism - some muslims wanted interests of egypt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Allied Aid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Genoese fleet in Jaffa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. had to come from 6 miles away
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. timber
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. siege towers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. craftsman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. supplies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. Muslim Disunity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Fatamids took Jeruslame from Seljuks 1098
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Muslim groups offered supplies and gifts to crusaders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. for self preservation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. spared from attack
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. muslims feared franks due to them defeated kerbogha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Ifikhar ab-Daulah
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Fatimid Jeruslame Governor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. hid in Tower of David and negotiated release with Raymond of Toulouse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Muslim population fled to Dome of Rock and didn't resist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. Battle of Ascalon 12th Aug 1099
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Tactics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. crusaders heard of animals made dust - appeared larger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Godfrey had horsemen ready to counter flanks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Genose supplies from Acre
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Arnuf, patriarch of Jerusalem, Held relic True Cross & Raymond had Holy Lance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Fatimid's had no help
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. But they didn't secure Ascalon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Who should control Antioch?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Alexius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. oath of loyalty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. taken from him 1085
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. initially point of crusade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. sent aid & Tatikios to Antioch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Stephen of Blois stopped him
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. and Danishmends coming up behind him
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Bohemond
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. lacked western land
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. brave fighter e.g. Dorylaeum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. took oath of loyalty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. skeptical of holy lance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Raymond
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. spiritual leader
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. fought muslims in spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. god wanted him to have Antioch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. as Peter Bartholomew, his guy, had visions of St Andrew and found holy lance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. wanted city over to Alexius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. but really resented Bohemond's growing power
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Why did it succeed?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Maalouf: 'dynastic Muslim quarrels'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Asbridge: Genoese fleet arrival 'transformed siege of Jeruslam'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Jotischy: 'Bohemond's resourcefulness'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Riley-Smith: 'only eplanation for success was divine hand'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. France: 'Cyprus offshire base' & Alexius 'explained problems of Turkks and Muslim Divisions
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