International Relations since 1919

Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Cambridge IGCSE History Mind Map on International Relations since 1919, created by eddienorris19 on 12/21/2013.

Created by eddienorris19 almost 6 years ago
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International Relations since 1919
1 The Big Three
1.1 Clemenceau


  • Priority: Prevent Germany from being a threat to France. Seen France invaded twice (1870 & 1914).  Wanted to cripple Germany. Had to be aware of the opinion of the French public.
1.2 Wilson


  • Priority: 14 Points, especially the League of Nations. Wanted to build a better world from the ruins of the war, he wanted Germany to be punished but not too harshly.  USA had entered the war in 1917 and had suffered no destruction of its territory. 
1.3 Llyod-George


  • Priority: Remove Germany as a threat to Britain's navy and Empire.  Understood the damages of punishing Germany too harshly but had recently one an election for promising to make Germany pay. Wanted a Treaty which punished Germany but kept the balance of power in Europe.
2 Why did all the victors not get everything they wanted?
2.1 All had different objectives. Negotiations based on compromise
2.2 Wilson gave way on the Saar and Rhineland in return for self determination in Eastern Europe
2.3 The french were angry that Britain wanted Germany treated fairly but not prepared to make imperial or naval concessions.
2.4 Britain expressed concern over some of the 14 points e.g access to the seas and people ruling themselves.
2.5 Could not agree a figure for the reparations.
2.5.1 Set up a Reparations Commission to decide a figure after the Treaty was signed
2.6 Self determination proved difficult to implement in areas of cultural and ethnic diversity.
3 What was the impact of the peace treaty on Germany up to 1923?
3.1 Lost 10% of their land; 12% of population; 16% coalfields; 50% iron and steel; all colonies
3.2 Reductions in army and & navy, no airforce
3.3 Accepts war guilt clause and reparations later set to 6,600,000,000 punds
3.4 Forbidden to unite with Austria (Anschluss)
3.5 Anger that Germany was not represented at talks - "dikat"
3.6 Fragile Weimer government unpopular for signing the Treaty - Kapp Putsch, French occupation of the Ruhr, hyperinflation and Munich Putsch
4 Could the Treaties be justified at the time?
4.1 Clemenceau felt the Treaties were not harsh enough - voted out of office in 1920
4.2 Wilson was dissatisfied, US congress refused to approve the Treaty.
4.3 Lloyd-George received a hero's welcome in Britain
4.4 At the time the Treaty widely seen as fair
4.5 A more generous Treaty would have been objected by public opinion in Britain and France
4.6 inhindsight easy to blame the peace makers of WW2
4.7 Did the best they could at the time
5 The other peace treaties of 1919-23
5.1 St. Germain 1919 - Austria lost land to Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, Army reduced
5.2 Trianon 1919 - Hungary lost land to Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia
5.3 Neuilly 1920 - Bulgaria; less harsh lost some land, military restrictions
5.4 Sèyres 1920 - Turkey end of Ottoman Empire, Middle East territories become British French mandates, Symrna to Greece
5.5 Lausanne 1923 - Turkey Symrna returned to Turkey after Turks drove Greeks out

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