Priority: Prevent Germany from being a threat to France.
Seen France invaded twice (1870 & 1914).
Wanted to cripple Germany.
Had to be aware of the opinion of the French public.
Priority: 14 Points, especially the League of Nations.
Wanted to build a better world from the ruins of the war, he wanted Germany to be punished but not too harshly.
USA had entered the war in 1917 and had suffered no destruction of its territory.
Priority: Remove Germany as a threat to Britain's navy and Empire.
Understood the damages of punishing Germany too harshly but had recently one an election for promising to make Germany pay.
Wanted a Treaty which punished Germany but kept the balance of power in Europe.
2 Why did all the victors not get everything they wanted?
2.1 All had different objectives. Negotiations based on compromise
2.2 Wilson gave way on the Saar and Rhineland
in return for self determination in Eastern
2.3 The french were angry that Britain
wanted Germany treated fairly but not
prepared to make imperial or naval
2.4 Britain expressed concern over
some of the 14 points e.g access to
the seas and people ruling
2.5 Could not agree a figure for the reparations.
2.5.1 Set up a Reparations Commission to
decide a figure after the Treaty was
2.6 Self determination proved
difficult to implement in
areas of cultural and ethnic
3 What was the impact of the peace treaty on Germany up to 1923?
3.1 Lost 10% of their land; 12% of
population; 16% coalfields; 50%
iron and steel; all colonies
3.2 Reductions in army and & navy, no airforce
3.3 Accepts war guilt clause and reparations later
set to 6,600,000,000 punds
3.4 Forbidden to unite with Austria (Anschluss)
3.5 Anger that Germany was not represented at talks - "dikat"
3.6 Fragile Weimer government unpopular for signing the Treaty -
Kapp Putsch, French occupation of the Ruhr, hyperinflation
and Munich Putsch
4 Could the Treaties be justified at the time?
4.1 Clemenceau felt the Treaties were not harsh enough
- voted out of office in 1920
4.2 Wilson was dissatisfied, US congress refused to approve the Treaty.
4.3 Lloyd-George received a hero's welcome in Britain
4.4 At the time the Treaty widely seen as fair
4.5 A more generous Treaty would have been
objected by public opinion in Britain and France
4.6 inhindsight easy to blame the
peace makers of WW2
4.7 Did the best they could at the time
5 The other peace treaties of 1919-23
5.1 St. Germain 1919 - Austria lost land to
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, Army
5.2 Trianon 1919 - Hungary lost land to
Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia
5.3 Neuilly 1920 - Bulgaria; less
harsh lost some land, military
5.4 Sèyres 1920 - Turkey end of Ottoman Empire,
Middle East territories become British French
mandates, Symrna to Greece
5.5 Lausanne 1923 - Turkey Symrna returned to
Turkey after Turks drove Greeks out