Animal Physiology

Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

first few topics of animal physiology

Created by georgietheredhea almost 6 years ago
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Animal Physiology
1 breathing and gas exchange
1.1 Smoking
1.1.1 lung cancer
1.1.2 cilia destroyed
1.1.3 build up of mucus
1.2 Breathing IN
1.2.1 1) intercostal muscles contract
1.2.2 2) ribs move upwards and outwards
1.2.3 3) pressure drops
1.2.4 4) air is forced in
1.3 Breathing OUT
1.3.1 1) intercostal muscles relax
1.3.2 2) ribs move down and in
1.3.3 3) pressure rises
1.3.4 4) air forced out
1.4 AIR goes down the TRACHEA then the BRONCI then the BRONCIOLES then the ALVEOLI
1.5 Alveoli adaptions for gas exchange
1.5.1 large surface area
1.5.2 high concentration of oxygen so high concentration gradient
1.5.3 very thin so capillaries have a shorter diffusing distance
2 Homeostasis and Excretion
2.1 homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment
2.1.1 water content 1) higher level of salt in blood is detected by the hypothalamus 2) pituitary gland secrets ADH 3) the nephron is made more permeable, so more water is absorbed and less secreted
2.1.2 temperature 1) hypothalamus detects rise in body temperature 2) Sweat glands produce greater amounts of sweat 3) hairs lie flat against skin 4) blood flows closer to skins surface
2.2 ADH
2.2.1 negative feedback loop
2.2.2 excreted by pituitary gland
2.3 Nephron
2.3.1 the nephron carries blood through the kidney filtering out different sized molecules using ULTRAFILTRATION
3 Blood and circulation
3.1 red blood cells
3.1.1 dome structure
3.1.2 larger surface area
3.1.3 no nucleus
3.1.4 short diffusion distance
3.2 Platelets
3.2.1 clot the blood cell fragments exposed to the air creates FIBRIN which forms a network across a wound.
3.3 plasma
3.3.1 carries nutrients, hormones and carbon dioxide around the body
3.4 white blood cells
3.4.1 lymphocytes produce antibodies i.e. memory cells
3.4.2 phagocytes engulf bacteria
3.5 blood vessels
3.5.1 arteries carries blood from heart to the organs biggest
3.5.2 Veins carries blood from organs to heart second biggest
3.5.3 capilleries carries blood through organs to go through gas exchange between the blood and cells smallest

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