More foundation of Outremer

Oliver Callaghan
Mind Map by Oliver Callaghan, updated more than 1 year ago
Oliver Callaghan
Created by Oliver Callaghan about 4 years ago


AS - Level History (Crusades Year 1) Mind Map on More foundation of Outremer, created by Oliver Callaghan on 02/20/2016.

Resource summary

More foundation of Outremer
1 Defending Outremer
1.1 manpower problems
1.1.1 strong fortification garrisoned by small number of men
1.1.2 money raised used for mercenaries
1.1.3 lords on armed pilgramages - temporary army but hard to control - Fulk of Anjou 1101, 08, 20
1.1.4 use of feudal system as money & land fiefs
1.1.5 church & towns - quotas of sergeants
1.1.6 light cav recruited from local christians
1.1.7 Pisa/Genoa/Venice
1.1.8 Standing army of Military Orders
1.1.9 Family links with west - raymond of poitiers as son
1.2 Military tactics
1.2.1 rigid/tight knit lines - stopped turks breaking Frankish lines needed lots of frankish discipline against missiles & feint
1.2.2 formation on march
1.2.3 well supplied bases & supply columns
1.2.4 intelligence system - offset lack of maps
1.2.5 cav tactics by squadron but rare due to expense of horses
1.2.6 professional infantry
1.2.7 retreated to fortified place risk of battle (Harran 1104 .. Blood & Ramla) wanted to save manpower
1.3 Castles
1.3.1 restored & enlarged town walls Baldwin I Montreal Castle 1115 control Dead Sea valleys and Gulf of Aqaba reinforced walls of Jerusalem 1116
1.3.2 Defensive role to protect routes of communcication ,trade and protection for local population observation posts to check enemy movements at mountain passes, river crossings and on coast Krak des Chevaliers dominated Homs Pass in Tripoli Bagras Castle Beylan Pass Antioch Ibelin/Blanchegarde on Egyptian border between Gaza & Jerusalem Gaza guarded road between Jerusalem & Egypt Belvior Castle for eastern edge of Jerusalem & Rover Jordan Valley
1.3.3 Offensive base for garrisons raided enemy territory supply dumps
1.3.4 Admin bases for collection of taxes held council of princes
1.3.5 Economic - centres of trade & markets
1.3.6 Symbolic - relation to indestructibility of Outremer
1.3.7 Ellenblum's research first gen castles 1099-1115 fortified 20 existing castles eight new ones mainly in settlements they took from Muslims 2nd gen castles 1115-1169 new castles in rural & remote areas centres of agriculture relative carm - more bothered about admin & economics Phillips argues castles built to south of kingdom more defensive from Fatimid Egyptians Arnaldi 32-33
1.3.8 Built by kings
1.4 Military Orders
1.4.1 Knights Templar founded by knight Hugh of Payens Baldwin I gave them house that was Temple of Solomon white robe - left dark life behind them monastic vow of poverty, chastitiy & obedience answered to Pope only (God) Main Duties protect travelling pilgrims guides & escorts given many castles and land holdings castles of Bagras in Anticoh given 1130s controlled Baylan Pass main route through northern syria 1139 to 1145 Templars given special privilages by Pope tithe (church tax) exemptions owned 35% land middle east pilgrims fuel economic & richer ones deposited money - templars had Louis VII France in debt in 1147 Great knowlefge of holy places 1120 recognised
1.4.2 Knights Hospitallers cared for sick & injured pilgrims given land by Baldwin I 1119 recognised as independant order monastic vow poverty, chasitity & obedience loyal to pope role Philips argues that they didn't do much medical stuff but just gave caring enviroment for weary & undernourished pilgrims 1119 they began to protect pilgrims from attack included soldiers in it semi-monastic + semi-military fufill knights dilema 1136 King Fulk gave Bethgiblin Castle tax exemptions so wealthy
1.4.3 but sometimes they pursued their own interests
1.4.4 Templars ruled indepandantly - autonomus
1.4.5 rivalry between Templars & Hospitallers
1.4.6 Clashes with KoJ's
1.4.7 not many of them most 300-500
1.4.8 military role no there until 1130s
1.4.9 allowed by Canon 20 of Council of Nabulus 1120
2 Dynasty
2.1 Tancred Lord of Galilee seperate
2.2 Baldwin I/II's cousin was Josecelin of Courtney
2.3 Fulk dies 1143
2.4 Antioch
2.4.1 Remember Roger of Salerno as regent
2.4.2 Bohemond II married Alice he died 1130 Raymond of Poitiers comes from west to marry Alice but Alice wanted to be ruleralone birth to Constance
2.5 Tripoli
2.5.1 Raymond - Bertrand 1105 - Pons
2.6 Edessa
2.6.1 Joscelin of Courtney 18-31
2.6.2 31 onward Joscelin II
3 Kings of Jerusalem 1131-1149
3.1 Baldwin II married Armenian Morphia of Melitene
3.1.1 no sons
3.1.2 4 daughters including Melisende Fulk V of Anjou persuaded persauded by High of Payns to bring military to aid attack on Damascus which failed Fulk Married Melisene 1129 - Baldwin II died 31 - inherited joint crown with Melisene & Baldwin III
3.2 Political Tensions in Jerusalem
3.2.1 the accession of Fulk/Melisende to throne tension between Montlhery family Baldwin II, Melisene & Count Hugh of Jaffa Angevins Count Fulk of Anjou's new supporters Fulk put Angevins into key positions angered established lords he also sidelined Melisende 1134 Count Hugh of Jaffa rebelled supported Melisende against husband Hugh due to trial by combat but retreated to Ascalon agreement with Muslims vs. Fulk Hugh's supporters turned against him Hugh gave up rebellion & stabbed killed Fulk implicated in murder Melisende furious as Hugh was her cousin problems in Antioch (Alice) needed attention so Fulk gave Melisende greater control & gave her a psalter as peace offering
3.3 Melisende's Psalter
3.3.1 contains 150 psalms
3.3.2 richly decorated
3.3.3 Mixed Armenia, Latin, Frank, Christianity and Greek (Byzantine) together - shows Frankish assimilation
3.4 Fulk Built
3.4.1 Castru Arnaldi 32/3
3.4.2 Bethgibelin 36
3.4.3 Ibelin 41
3.4.4 Blanclagorde 42
3.4.5 Protected south of KoJ
3.5 Problems with Byzantine Emperor John Comnenus 37/8 & 42/3
3.5.1 John Comnenus angry he hadn't been involved in decision over who to marry Constance as he was overlord 37 - he arrived at Antioch high army - opportunity to increase Byzantine influence gone
3.5.2 John says if Raymond gets Aleppo/Shaizer he can ramin in control Raymond didn't capture it so John went to Antioch but died first
3.6 Queen Melisende
3.6.1 After Fulk died 1143 Melisende ruled as regent to son Baldwin III but refused to give up position 1145 Melisende couldn't partake in military but William of Tyre said she had 'great wisdom' took part in council at Acre in 2nd Crusade & argued Ascalon should be a target Changing political structure Asbridge argues politics of the east had changed since Baldwin I/II who basically ruled as autocrats princes expected autonomy consulation with nobles & church high court most important forum for decision making John Le Morte agued position of king was first among equals but Prawer argued that it had changes to interaction between other powerful groups like Italians, princes & orders Melisende faced conflicting interests prior to 2nd crusade Frankish nobility prevented response to Muslim counter crusade Baldwin III 1152 rebelled against mother forced her to surrender till 1163 he ruled but influenced by Melisende until 1161 captured Ascalon 1153 so not viewed as proper ruler
4 Relations with Byzantium
4.1 during 1st crusade
4.1.1 Alexius escorted peasants & told them to wait for knights
4.1.2 Tatikios gave guidance & support & supplies
4.1.3 Siege of Nicea Jun 97 blocked lake Askania
4.1.4 Dorylaeum 1st Jul 97 Tatikios advnice not to follow feint Bohemond withstood loads of missiles
4.1.5 Supplies were never enough
4.1.6 Stephen of Blois told Alexius to turn around
4.1.7 Bohemond Establish Antioch as principaility breaking oath Bohemond ejected Greek Patriarch & bad relations and view of Byzantium
4.2 Bohemond's Crusade 07/08
4.2.1 Pope Paschal II (99-18) supported him
4.2.2 violant propaganda campaign
4.2.3 westerners through byzantium was eveil and treacherous
4.2.4 Alexius defeated him
4.2.5 treaty of devol 1108 allowed Bohemond to hold Antioch as Alexius' subject Byzantine relations stayed silent after Devol because John occupied with Petchang tribes Troubles with Venetian fleets Byzantines satisfied with overlordship
4.3 Tancred
4.3.1 Tyerman argues he was 'real founded of Antioch'
4.3.2 recovered Cilicia & extended its frontiers - south to Shaizar & east to Aleppo
4.3.3 Tancred ignored Treaty of Devol but Alexius ignored him as he had worrying things turks & fleets of ships e.g. ..
4.4 John 1137 arrived Antioch
4.4.1 he was angered he had no say over who Constance should marry she married Raymond of Poiters he wanted his own son Manuel to marry her
4.4.2 King Fulk submitted to him Fulk needed support vs. Zengi Fulk agreed to take Aleppo * Shaizar as fief but he failed so John returned in 1143 but didn't get to Antioch as he died along the way
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