Biting Flies 1

elenifraser
Mind Map by elenifraser, updated more than 1 year ago
elenifraser
Created by elenifraser about 4 years ago
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1

Description

Normally divided by whether they're land / water based! It shows us how to control them. Includes:Stomoxys, Haematobia, keds etc.

Resource summary

Biting Flies 1
1 Stomoxys
1.1 Stable Fly
1.2 Life Cycle

Annotations:

  • Spends most of ti's time off the host! Just settles on it's host to feed but spends most of it's time on buildings, foliage & fences.  Attacks humans & animals WORLDWIDE
1.2.1 Eggs laid on rotting straw!
1.2.2 Completed in a month & then the adult only lives a month.
1.3 How's it recognised?
1.3.1 Looks like a house fly
1.3.1.1 KEY DIFFERENCE: Forward pointing proboscis shows that it's a biting fly
1.3.2 Thorax = grey with darker grey stripes
1.3.3 Abdomen = grey with black spots
1.4 Pathogenic significance?
1.4.1 Production losses
1.4.1.1 Painful bite
1.4.1.2 Can account for a 20% decrease in milk yield & weight gain!
1.4.2 Disease transmission

Annotations:

  •  - Pathogenic bacteria + viruses (mechanical transmission)  - Protozoa e.g. trypanosomes (mechanical transmission)  - Helminths (intermediate host for Habronema)
1.5 Control as you would a musca
2 Haematobia

Annotations:

  • Resident fly that spends most of it's time ON the host. 
2.1 Horn Fly

Annotations:

  • Mostly in South England! Also Europe, USA & Australia
2.2 Feed on places where the skin's thin!

Annotations:

  • This can include the belly, dewlap & udder.  It just rests along the back, shoulders & sides. 
2.3 Looks like a stable fly but smaller!
2.4 The flies tend to face downwards when resting!
2.5 Life Cycle
2.5.1 Eggs laid in fresh cow poo!
2.5.1.1 Larvae pupate in soil beneath dungpat
2.5.1.1.1 Adult emerges within a week
2.6 Pathogenic significance
2.6.1 Production Losses
2.6.1.1 Cluster around head annoying the sheep
2.6.1.2 Bites - skin wounds - attract other muscid flies & blowflies
2.6.2 Disease Transmission

Annotations:

  • Pathogenic bacteria + viruses (mechanical transmission). Helminths (intermediate host for Stephanofilaria). 
2.7 Why are horn flies easier to control than other musca species?
2.7.1 They are in contact with the host more!
2.7.1.1 Why is this also a disadvantage in terms of control?

Annotations:

  • They develop insecticidal resistance more rapidly! As the concentration decreases over time the flies aren't killed immediately! 
3 Read the notes on the boxes!
4 Haematobia irritans = resident fly & stomoxys = just a visiting fly
5 Hippoboscidae
5.1 Hippobosca spp.

Annotations:

  • Loves horses & cows Old world (
5.1.1 Forest Fly
5.1.1.1 Most important species in UK = H. equina
5.1.2 How is it recognised?
5.1.2.1 It's bigger than the house fly!
5.1.2.2 Medium sized fly

Annotations:

  • 1cm 
5.1.2.3 Reddish-brown with yellow spots on thorax & abdomen
5.1.2.4 Reduced wings & the veins are crowded towards the anterior margin (the front of the wing)
5.1.2.4.1 They can't fly very well.

Annotations:

  • Just jump from animal to animal.
5.1.2.4.2 Biting mouthparts! The proboscis is retracted in the head except during feeding.
5.1.3 Life Cycle
5.1.3.1 Adult flies are about from May - October
5.1.3.2 Mate on the host & the female deposits a SINGLE LARVAE in the soil / damp humus

Annotations:

  • There's still an egg except it ruptures in the uterus & releases a larvae. 
5.1.3.3 The larvae pupate & adult flies emerge the following spring
5.1.3.4 1 YEAR
5.1.4 Pathogenic significance
5.1.4.1 Biting irritation & annoyance

Annotations:

  • Large numbers are found on the perineum & inner thigh where there's thin skin. 
5.1.4.2 Mechanical vectors of non pathogenic Trypanosoma theileri in cattle

Annotations:

  • Another type in sheep Don't panic it's normal!
5.1.5 Control
5.1.5.1 Topical insecticide application (including repellant & residual action)
5.2 Melophagus ovinus
5.2.1 Sheep ked

Annotations:

  • Sheep & goats Deer have a different species
5.2.2 How is it recognised?
5.2.2.1 Medium sized hairy fly

Annotations:

  • 6mm long
5.2.2.2 Biting mouthparts

Annotations:

  • Forward pointing proboscis mounted on a short head.
5.2.2.3 Wingless
5.2.2.4 Strong legs & claws
5.2.3 Life Cycle
5.2.3.1 All ON THE HOST
5.2.3.1.1 Although adult hosts may survive for one week off the hosts
5.2.3.2 Female keds lay single larvae on the fleece which pupate.
5.2.3.2.1 Adult ked lay single larvae on the fleece which pupate.
5.2.3.2.1.1 The adult merges after a few weeks - months

Annotations:

  • Temperature dependant
5.2.4 Pathogenic Significance
5.2.4.1 Most numerous when the fleece is long in autumn / winter
5.2.4.2 Transmission = good because they're found on surface layers of the fleece

Annotations:

  • Long wooled breeds = most susceptible. 
5.2.4.3 Anaemia if there'slots (suck blood)
5.2.4.4 Wool damage
5.2.4.4.1 Irritation

Annotations:

  • Scratchy & results in self inflicted damage
5.2.4.4.2 Staining by ked fleeces
5.2.4.5 Intermediate host

Annotations:

  • For non pathogenic Trypanosoma melophagium in sheep.
5.2.5 Control

Annotations:

  • Sheep dipping & spraying controls keds.  Shearing reduces ked numbers. 
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