Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression

jones.william161
Mind Map by jones.william161, updated more than 1 year ago
jones.william161
Created by jones.william161 about 6 years ago
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A2 Psychology (Aggression) Mind Map on Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression, created by jones.william161 on 01/12/2014.
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Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression
1 Testosterone

Annotations:

  • Male sex hormone thought to influence aggression due to it’s effects on brain areas involved in controlling aggression.
1.1 Dabbs et al

Annotations:

  • Supportive. Measured salivary testosterone levels in violent & non-violent criminals.
  • Highest=history of primarily violent crimes. Lower=non-violent crimes.
1.2 Lindman et al

Annotations:

  • Supportive. Young males behaved aggressively when drunk had higher testosterone levels than those who didn't
1.3 Wingfield et al

Annotations:

  • Proposes that in monogamous species, testosterone should only rise above baselines breeding level in response to social challenges e.g. threats to status. Thus, testosterone surges is expected with a consequent rise in aggression.
  • Social cues
2 Testosterone
2.1 Archer

Annotations:

  • Supportive. Meta-analysis. 230 males over 5 studies 
  • Found a low, but positive correlation between testosterone and aggression. However, type of Pps, and form and measurments of agression differed substantially between studies.
  • Correlational data only shows causal data, but not why.
2.2 Albert et al

Annotations:

  • Refutive. Studies have found a link between testosterone and aggression, but others haven’t. Thus, there is inconsistent evidence.
3 Cortisol

Annotations:

  • Has a mediating effect on other aggression-related hormones like testosterone, possibly as it raises anxiety and liklelihood of social withdrawel.
  • Low cortisol plays an important role by raising likelihood of aggressive behaviour.
3.1 Virkkunen

Annotations:

  • Reported low levels of cortisol in habitual violent offenders
3.1.1 Tennes &Kreye

Annotations:

  • Low levels of cortisol in violent schoolchildren.
4 Cortisol
4.1 Four year study on boys with behavioural issues.

Annotations:

  • Supportive of the moderating effect of cortisol on aggressive behaviour.
  • Boys with consistently low cortisol levels began anti-social behaviour at a younger age, plus exhibited 3 times aggressive symptoms than boys with higher cortisol.
  • Thus, cortisol is ‘strongly and inversly related to aggressive conduct disorder’.
5 IDAs
5.1 Gender Bias

Annotations:

  • Research suggests a link between testosterone and aggression higher for females.  Females may also respond to challenging situations with increased testosterone, displaying aggression
5.2 Reductionism & Biological Mechanisms

Annotations:

  • The links between biological mechanisms like testosterone with aggression isn’t as well established in humans. Complexity of human social behaviour means a biological explanation for aggression is insufficient on it’s own to explain all aspects of aggressive behaviour.
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