Protect Pps from psychological and physical harm. Hard to test experimental hypotheses of SLT in children, hard ton establish scientific credibility.
2 Bandura & Walters
We also learn by observing others.
A person's biological make-up creates potential for aggression, but it's the actual expression of aggression that learnt.
3 Vicarious Learning
Children learn consequences by observing others being reinforced or punished. Consequently, learning what is considered appropriate conduct in their world.
4 Mental Representations
Bandura claimed for SLT to work, a child must first form mental representations of events in their social environment.
Children should represent possible rewards and punishments as expectancies of future outcomes.
When opportunity arises a child will display learned behaviour expectation of reward is higher.
If a child is rewarded, more likely to repeat, and form confidence. Those who's actions have proved disastarous in the past have lower self-efficacy.
7 Bandura et al 1
Pps 3-5 yr olds. Half exposed to aggressive adult model, half exposed to no aggressive model. Aggressive model exhibited clear physical, and verbal violence. Pps then frustrated by shown toys, but couldn't play with them. Aggressive condition reproduced behaviour, so did no aggressive condition. Boys more aggressive than girls, but didn't differ in verbal aggression.
Doesn't say why this happened.
Repeated study. This time rewarding all children for imitation of aggression.
Production of behaviour related to selective reinforcements.
7.2 Demand Characteristics
Noble-'Look mummu, there's the doll we have to hit'.
Daily homicide rates in US almost always increased the week following a major boxing match.
Viewers imitating what they watched behaviour, SLT evident in adults.
9 Vicarious Learning
Vicarious learning needed to explain aggressive behaviour in the absence of direct reinforcement.
10 Individual differences
Differences within individuals related to selective reinforcement and context-dependent learning. People respond differently in different situations as observed aggression is some not others.
11 Cultural Differences
Kung San aggression is rare due to absence of direct reinfrocement, and absence of aggressive models.