Chapter 4: Making Informed Decisions about Getting Involved in a Lifetime of Healthy Physical Activities

francesca graham
Mind Map by francesca graham, updated more than 1 year ago
francesca graham
Created by francesca graham about 4 years ago
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GCSE PE Mind Map on Chapter 4: Making Informed Decisions about Getting Involved in a Lifetime of Healthy Physical Activities, created by francesca graham on 03/23/2016.
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Chapter 4: Making Informed Decisions about Getting Involved in a Lifetime of Healthy Physical Activities
1 School Influences
1.1 PE is offered in school in different ways
1.1.1 Time table lessons
1.1.2 Extracurricular activities
1.1.2.1 recreational
1.1.2.2 competitive
1.1.3 Links with local clubs
1.1.4 Sports performance awards
1.1.4.1 Sports Leaders
1.1.4.2 Sports Leaders Awards
1.2 PE is offered in school for the following reasons
1.2.1 It is a legal requirement
1.2.2 To reflect the importance of sport in society
1.2.3 To improve health and fitness among young people
1.2.4 To encourage a healthy lifestyle
1.2.5 To help students acquire and improve their skills
1.2.6 To provide a balanced curriculum
1.2.7 To provide qualifications
1.2.7.1 GCSE
1.2.7.2 Alevels
1.3 National Curriculum Requirements
1.3.1 2014 curriculum (new)
1.3.1.1 USe of tactics to overcome an opponent in competition through individual and team games
1.3.1.2 Development of technique and improvement of performance
1.3.1.2.1 Gymnastics
1.3.1.2.2 Athletics
1.3.1.3 Performance of dances using advanced techniques
1.3.1.4 Taking part in outdoor and adventurous activities
1.3.1.5 Analysis of performance
1.3.1.6 Taking part in sports and activities outside of school
1.3.2 2008 curriculum (old)
1.3.2.1 Group 1
1.3.2.1.1 Outwitting opponents
1.3.2.1.1.1 Games
1.3.2.2 Group 2
1.3.2.2.1 Accurate replication of actions, phrases and sequences
1.3.2.2.1.1 Gymnastics
1.3.2.3 Group 3
1.3.2.3.1 Exploring and communicating ideas, concepts and emotions
1.3.2.3.1.1 Dance
1.3.2.4 Group 4
1.3.2.4.1 Performing at maximum level
1.3.2.4.1.1 Athletics
1.3.2.5 Group 5
1.3.2.5.1 Identifying and solving problems to overcome challenges
1.3.2.5.1.1 Life-saving
1.3.2.6 Group 6
1.3.2.6.1 Exercising safely and effectively
1.3.2.6.1.1 Circuit training
1.4 How This Relates To Lucy
1.4.1 If Lucy is a Year 11 student, she will have followed the old-style curriculum. Athletics is an integral part of both the old curriculum ('performing at maximum levels) and the new one ('development of techniques and improvement of performance of other competitive sports).
2 The National Healthy Schools Programme (NHSP)
2.1 Through PSHE education (personal social health economic education ) involving looking at different life issues including:
2.1.1 Sex education
2.1.2 Drug education
2.1.3 Ensuring the health and safety of students
2.1.4 Providing opportunities for enjoyment and achievement
2.2 Healthy eating - young people should be provided with the information to:
2.2.1 Make healthy food choices
2.2.2 Make them aware of what a balanced diet is
2.2.2.1 Children should have access to healthy food throughout the day and school lunches should offer healthy food options
2.2.3 Make them aware of problems associated with a poor diet
2.2.3.1 Obecity
2.2.3.2 Anorexia
2.3 Physical activity - provides a wide range of opportunities for young people to be active. Guidelines include:
2.3.1 A recommended 2 hours of physical activity each week to be available in and out of curriculum time with a wide range of activities provided
2.3.2 Community links with local clubs to encourage participetion
2.3.3 Outside visits to sports providers
2.4 Emotional health and well-being, which ensures schools have:
2.4.1 A bullying policy
2.4.2 A supportive pastoral system
2.4.3 A behaviour and rewards policy
2.5 How this relates to Lucy
2.5.1 Lucy will have experienced the benefits of the Healthy Schools Programme in all four areas at Murton Secondary School. The school actively promotes activity and healthy lifestyles, and could be doing this in a number of different ways, including:
2.5.1.1 Teaching the students about a balanced diet in Food Technology lessons
2.5.1.2 Making sure the school canteen offers healthy food choices
2.5.1.3 Vending machines with fruit juice and water rather than fizzy drinks
2.5.1.4 Timetabled PE lessons for 2 hours
2.5.1.5 Providing a range of extra curricular activities
2.5.1.6 Establishing links with local clubs, such a Murton Athletics Club
2.5.1.7 Running activities in the school holidays, such as the summer holiday athletics camp run by Lucy's coach, John
3 Extracurricular Opportunities
3.1 Extracurricular activities are carried out in addition to those in curriculum tome, A number of factors will influence the range and type of activities including:
3.1.1 Attitude of the staff (positive and negative)
3.1.2 The range and quality of facilities available
3.1.2.1 Some schools mat have a swimming pool, multi-use gym areas (MUGA), sports hall, playing fields, multi-gyms and tennis courts. Other schools mat not be so well resourced and so will limit the activities the school can offer
3.1.3 Outside visits to outside sports providers
3.1.3.1 Golf courses
3.1.3.2 Fitness gym
3.1.3.3 Climbing wall
3.1.3.4 Dry ski slopes
3.1.4 Range of activities
3.1.4.1 Competitive such as athletics, basketball and football teams, or recreational such as Zumba, boxercise and weight training
3.2 How this relates to Lucy
3.2.1 Lucy's interest in athetics started after she attended a summer holiday camp, following which she joined Murton Athletics Club. She has represents the school in athletics and the school's history of sporting success would suggest the the school has the appropriate facilities to enable a rang of activities to take place, and also the staff are willing to give up their time to run the clubs and teams
4 Influences
4.1 There are four different organisations which are responsible for providing opportunities for participation in sport:
4.1.1 1) Sports England
4.1.1.1 Sport England is 'focused on helping people and communities across the country create a sporting habit for life'
4.1.1.2 It was set up by the government and aim to increase participation in sport through:
4.1.1.2.1 Funding
4.1.1.2.1.1 finding provided by the government and the National Lottery with over £1 billion being invested in various projects between 2012 and 2017
4.1.1.2.2 Facilities
4.1.1.2.2.1 Iconic facilities catering for multi sports and activities which will increase participation
4.1.1.2.2.2 Inspired facilities helping local communities and volunteer groups to improve sports clubs or to provide facilities by transforming non-sporing venues
4.1.1.2.2.3 Protect playing fields
4.1.1.2.3 Monitoring levels of participation and identifying priority groups
4.1.1.2.3.1 The Active People Survey measures levels of participation.
4.1.1.2.3.2 The Satisfacation with the Quality of Sporing Experience Survey analysis why people play sports and what influences their level of satisfacstion.
4.1.1.2.3.3 The ultimate aim is to increase the number of people playing sports regularly and reduce the number of young people who stop plating sport when they leave school
4.1.1.3 How this relates to Lucy
4.1.1.3.1 John could encourage the local council to apply for funding under the inspired facilities scheme to help improve the facilities at the athletics track, particularly as the athletics club is facing closure as a result of deteriorating facilities. The council should be able to present a strong case for funding as closing the track will have a negative impact on the level of participation in sport in the local area, and Sport England are keen to encourage people to take part in sport
4.1.2 2) National Governing Bodies
4.1.2.1 National Governing Bodies are responsible for running individual sports locally and nationally. They provide training for coaches by running leadership courses and providing the opportunity to gain coaching and officiating qualifications. They are also responsible for ensuring that a talent development programme is in place to enable performers to reach their potential, and arranging competitions. UK Sport assist governing bodies with talent development and once a talented performer has been identified, they will them receive coaching support from the governing body
4.1.2.2 How this relates to Lucy
4.1.2.2.1 The governing body for athletics is UK Athletics. One of the ambitions for UK Athletics is 'to build an athletic nation based on participation'. One of the ways they intend to achieve this is by establishing the formation of a UK-wide network of high-quality coaching supporting athletes. They also provide officials and currently have 4,600 licensed technical officials who oversee competitions. John is looking to approach UK Athletics to help recruit volunteers to coach and officiate at Murton Athletics Club, and in view of their stated ambition about encouraging participation in athletics, he will hopefully receive the necessary support to allow the club to move forward
4.1.2.2.2 As a county 800 m and cross-country champion and finishing 3rd in the English Schools Championship, it is likely that Lucy will have been identified as a talented performer, and therefore eligible to receive coaching support from UK Athletics
4.1.3 3) The Youth Sports Trust
4.1.3.1 The Youth Sports Trust is an independent charity which aims to change young people's lives through sport. It manages national sports competitions such as National School Games and organises various leadership and volunteering programmes so that young people are engages in PE and school sport.
4.1.3.1.1 How this relates to Lucy
4.1.3.1.1.1 The Youth Sport Trust runs leadership and volunteering programmes to encourage people to be involved in sport. Lucy and her close friends belong to Murton Athletics Club and so could volunteer under the Junior Club Championship scheme which aims to encourage young people to make the transition from school sport to community sport. They could encourage other students at Murton Secondary School to join the Athletics Club, and could join John at the Club Committee as junior representatives and have a say in the running of the club
4.1.4 4) The Dame Kelly Holmes Legacy Trust
4.1.4.1 The Dame Kelly Holmes Legacy Trust aims to use elite sports performers to inspire and mentor young people from a range of backgrounds to get their lives on track and make the best of their talents.
4.1.4.2 How this relates to Lucy
4.1.4.2.1 The Dame Kelly Holmes Legacy Trust aims to use elite sport role models to inspire participation. Lucy's school may have been part of the Aspiring Minds project where elite performers go into schools to encourage participation in a particular sport. Jessica Ennis-Hill may have gone to Murton Secondary School and inspired at the top level on athletics
5 Cultural and Social Factors
5.1 Leisure Time
5.1.1 Leisure time is the time we have available to choose what we want to do, and this has increased in recent years due to :
5.1.1.1 Higher levels of unemployment
5.1.1.2 Less time working and longer holidays
5.1.1.3 Increase in paat-time jobs
5.1.1.4 Advances in technology
5.1.1.4.1 Labour-saving devices such as washing machines and dishwashers
5.1.1.4.2 Increased use of computers and iPads mean that more people are able to work from home, therefore reducing traveling time
5.1.2 As a result in the increase in leisure time, demands for leisure facilities has also increased and the leisure industry has had to grow accordingly. These facilities are provided by either the public or the private sector
5.1.2.1 Public sector facilities
5.1.2.1.1 Public sector facilities are owned by local authorities and councils and include leisure centres, swimming pools and sports fields. These facilities are not expected to make a profit. There are usually fees payable to take part, but these will often be low
5.1.2.1.2 Curtain user groups may be encouraged to use the facilities by being offered concession or special sessions. These user groups include the unemployed, OAPs, and mothers and toddlers
5.1.2.2 Private sector
5.1.2.2.1 Private-sector facilities are owned my companies or individuals and include health clubs, golf clubs, dance schools and sports stadiums. They are run to make a profit and require a membership to use them.
5.1.3 How this relates to Lucy
5.1.3.1 Lucy is a member of Murton Athletics Club, which uses the local council athletics track. The track is facing closure and the facilities have been deteriorating over the last five years due to the lack of funding. All local councils have had their funding reduced in recent years due to government cuts, and quire often leisure and sport facilities are not seen as a priority,. This is why it is important that the council should try to seek funding from Sport England
5.2 Fairness and personal and social responsibility
5.2.1 Etiquette is a set of unwritten rules players and performers are expected to follow. This may include kicking a ball out of play when a player is injured or shaking hands with opponents at the end of a game
5.2.2 Competitors should play fairly within the rules of the game and respect officials
5.2.3 How this relates to Lucy
5.2.3.1 Etiquette in athletics is not as clear ad in other sports., Guidelines tend to refer to factors such as being aware of other athletes when training or competing and being respectful towards others. During an 800 m race, Lucy would be expected to respect other athletes' running space and not deliberately block other runners, allowing fast runners to pass
6 Social Groupings
6.1 Social groups can influence an individual's participation in sport in either a positive or negative way. The groups which may be an influence on Lucy are:
6.1.1 Peers
6.1.1.1 Usually people of the same age as you
6.1.1.2 They can influence participation in a positive and negative way. If they enjoy sport, you are more likely to have a positive attitude and want to join in with them
6.1.1.3 However, if they dislike sport and have a negative attitude and prefer other activities, this may discourage an individual from taking part in sport
6.1.1.4 How this relates to Lucy
6.1.1.4.1 Lucy is fortunate that she has a group of close friends who share an interest in athletics, and they all attend Murton Athletics Club and have all represented the school athletics team. They will all appreciate the benefits that can be gained from taking part in sport and will be able to support each other in training and competitions. This may be particularly important for Lucy as she competes in county and national competitions where her friends can encourage her to do well
6.1.2 Family
6.1.2.1 Parents, siblings or other members of your family
6.1.2.2 Parents are an important influence on young people and their participation in physical activity. They can help with funding for equipment, kit, coaching and transport costs. They can also help by watching and encouraging when their children are taking part. If parents take part in sport themselves, this may encourage their children to also take part
6.1.2.3 How this relates to Lucy
6.1.2.3.1 The support of Lucy's family will be important, particularly as she continues to take part in various competitions around the country. They could support her financially by buying equipment such as trainers/spikes and clothing. At present, they are taking her to competitions and they will then be able to watch and support her. They themselves may have taking part in athletics when they were younger, and may have encouraged her to go to the summer holiday camp with a view to joining Murton Athletics Club.
6.1.2.3.2 However , they could have a negative influence on Lucy's participation if they are unable to continue to take Lucy to competitions because of the cost implications. This would mean she may not be able to take part in races or achieve her goal of being a national champion
6.1.2.4 If none of these factors are forthcoming, then an individual may be discouraged from participating, particularly if parents have a negative attitude towards sport
6.1.3 Gender
6.1.3.1 Cultural references to being male or female
6.1.3.2 Women now have more opportunities to take part in sport, and in recent years there has been a reduction in sexual discrimination in sport, and laws are now in place to ensure that this does not happen. Sport England is investing £1.7 million into a Women In Sport campain to try encourage more girls to take part in physical activity
6.1.3.3 How This relates to Lucy
6.1.3.3.1 Lucy and her friends will now be encouraged to take part in sport, which would not have been the case in the past. Changing attitudes over the years mean that girls are being actively encourages to participate in a variety of sports
7 Opportunities Available for Becoming Involved in Physical Activity
7.1 Roles
7.1.1 Schools can encourage students to adopt different roles in their PE lessons and these are:
7.1.1.1 Player/performer
7.1.1.2 leader/coach
7.1.1.3 Organiser
7.1.1.4 Official
7.1.2 These roles should involve the students becoming involved in increasingly challenging tasks. They should also be able to experience roles through volunteering, which may lead on to students following certain careers and volunteering pathways
7.1.3 How this relates to Lucy
7.1.3.1 Lucy is experiencing the role of performer in PE lessons. Her talent in athletics may also have seen her take on the role of a coach in lessons and helping other students improve their performance. She could have helped organise and officiate at the school's sports day, and so potentially Lucy could have experienced all 4 roles. She could then use her experience to volunteer to coach and officiate at the athletics club, particularly as the club is struggling to recruit volunteers for these roles. Once Lucy has reached the age at which she decides to stop competing in athletics, she could take on the role of coach, organiser or official
7.2 Courses and qualifications
7.2.1 There are a number of courses and qualifications relating to PE. These include GCSE PE, BTEC qualifications in various aspects of sport and leisure, A Level PE and numerous degree courses at universities.
7.2.2 Sports Performance Awards exist relating to specific sports, such as athletics or gymnastics. Coaching, organising, leadership and officiating awards are also available for different sports. The Sport Leader and Community Sports Leader Awards are often taught in schools and collages.
7.2.3 Proficiency awards are available and exist in many sports and, in the case of swimming; a life-saving award may enable a student to be employed as a lifeguard. National governing bodies run awars schemes in different activities to encourage participation.
7.2.4 In GCSE PE, students can be assessed in different roles, and this can help gain qualifications in the selected areas and even lead to a career.
7.2.5 How this relates to Lucy
7.2.5.1 Lucy may be taking part in the Englis Schools Athletics Association Scheme, which encourages secondary-school students to gain a Gold, Silver and Bronze Award by completing athletic events. She may also be involved in the Sportshall Secondary Programme, providing an opportunity for compeating at county and regional level, Lucy could become involved in award schemes in coaching or officiating run by UK Athletics and gain qualification. She could then help John at Murton Athletics Club as he is struggling to recruit volunteers.
7.3 Vocational opportunities
7.3.1 Once students have gained sports-related qualifications, there are a number of career opportunities available
7.3.2 Elite athletes may have the opportunity to become professional performers. Other athletes may choose to compete at a semi-professional or amateur level
7.3.2.1 Professional - someone who trains and competes full-time for financial reward - this will be their job
7.3.2.2 Amateur - Someone who takes part in sport for enjoyment and does not receive financial reward
7.3.2.3 Semi-professional - a combination of the above: someone who will have a job and may also receive payment for taking part in sport. In some sports there are loopholes allowing amateurs to receive payment and these SHAMATEURS can receive funding through sponsorship, expenses or jobs which allow time off to train and compete
7.3.2.4 Open sports attract both amateur and professional performers - examples include golf and tennis. Athletics is classed as a amateur sport. but athletes can receive appearance money and expenses for competing. In both Rio 2016 Olympics, professional tennis players and footballers will be able to compete against amateur performers
7.3.2.5 There ate various careers related to sport, such as PE teachers, trainers, coaches, sports managers and physiotherapists
7.3.2.6 Performers can choose to become coaches once they have finished competing in sport, providing they gain the necessary coaching qualifications
7.3.3 How this relates to Lucy
7.3.3.1 Athletics is an amateur sport, with athletes often having to rely on National Lottery funding to enable them to train and take part in competitions. As an amateur, Lucy will be taking part in athletics for enjoyment rather than financial gain. Lucy's interest in athletics mat result in her wanting to pursue a career in sport, such as a PE teacher or a physiotherapist. This would involve her going to collage or university to gain the relevant qualifications for her chosen career
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