2.3 Energy and ATP

Bee Brittain
Mind Map by , created about 3 years ago

AS - Level Biology (2 - Nucleic Acids) Mind Map on 2.3 Energy and ATP, created by Bee Brittain on 03/29/2016.

Bee Brittain
Created by Bee Brittain about 3 years ago
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2.3 Energy and ATP
1 Plant cells and animal cells release energy from glucose - respiration
1.1 However, cells cant get their energy directly from glucose
1.1.1 In respiration, the energy released from glucose is used to make ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
2 Structure of ATP
2.1 Adenine - a nitrogen-containing organic base
2.2 Ribose - a pentose sugar that acts as a backbone to which other parts are attached
2.3 Phosphates - a chain of three phosphates
2.3.1 It is the bonds between these phosphates where the energy is stored. It is released via hydrolysis reactions
3 How ATP stores energy
3.1 Bonds between phosphate groups are unstable = they have low activation energy = easily broken
3.1.1 When broken these bonds release lots of energy
4 Hydrolysis of ATP
4.1 ATP + (H2O) --> ADP + Pi + E
4.1.1 adenosine triphosphate + water --> adenosine diphosphate + inorganic phosphate + ENERGY Water used to convert ATP to ADP = hydrolysis reaction Reaction catalysed by the enzyme ATP Hydrolase
4.2 The hydrolysis of ATP can be coupled to energy-requiring cells
4.2.1 Energy used directly instead of being lost as heat
5 Synthesis of ATP
5.1 Catalysed by ATP synthase
5.2 Reverse of the equation for the hydrolysis of ATP
5.3 Water removed in process = Condensation reaction
5.4 Adding an inorganic phosphate to adenosine diphosphate = adenosine triphosphate
5.5 synthesis of ATP from ADP occurs in 3 ways:
5.5.1 In chlorophyll-containing plant cells during photosynthesis (photophosphorylation)
5.5.2 In plant and animal cells during respiration (oxidative phosphorylation)
5.5.3 In plant and animal cells when phosphate groups are transferred from donor molecules to ADP (substrate-level phosphorylation)