linked to mental illness which is linked to childhood trauma or maladaptive upbringing.
1.1.1 Coates (1991)
Case Study - boy with GID.
Defensive reaction to mothers depression following an abortion.
child was 3 - sensitive to gender issues.
May have lead to a cross-gender fantasy to resolve anxiety
220.127.116.11 Coates (1997)
435 ppt with gender dysphoria
range of conditions no greater than general population - so suggests unrelated to trauma/pathological families.
A more valid study discounts Coates (1991) case study - more ppt. and more empirical measures (using DSM diagnosis).
18.104.22.168 Case Studies
Abonrmal individuals so not applicable beyond findings (low population validity)
Researcher-ppt. relationships = bais
22.214.171.124 Socially senstive
Grouping GID and other psychiatric conditions could be fatalistic for people experiencing GID (self-fulfilling prophesy)
Reductionist - no inclusion of biology - blames parents/child
1.2 Mother-son relationships
1.2.1 Stoller (1975)
GID results from distorted parental attitudes.
Clinical interviews - individuals with GID displayed overly-close mother-son relationships.
Greater female identification and confused identity.
126.96.36.199 Zucker (1996)
115 male with gender identity issues and also their mothers.
Those diagnosed with GID - 64% diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder also.
just 38% with sub-clinical symptoms.
Suggests mother-son attachment is a factor
Only MtF explained, FtM discounted
Only MtF not FtM. Can not completely rely on mother-son relationship, as only 64%.