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French Rev causes

Description

History Mind Map on French Rev causes, created by hannah9515 on 04/19/2013.
hannah9515
Mind Map by hannah9515, updated more than 1 year ago
hannah9515
Created by hannah9515 over 9 years ago
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Resource summary

French Rev causes
  1. Social
    1. Absolute monarchy

      Annotations:

      • The king was put there by God and answered to no one on Earth. He needed a strong dominant personality. He had a small number of men to help him make new laws who were called the General's.
      1. Estate system

        Annotations:

        • France was spilt up into 3 states and they all had different privilages some were bound by law.
        1. 1st

          Annotations:

          • The clergy. They didn't pay any of the taxes which caused a ot of resentment.                                 
          1. Plurality/ absenteeism

            Annotations:

            • Young sons of the 2nd Estate entered the church and occupied the high posts. Many of the bishops had more than 1 diocese (plurality) that they never visted.
          2. 2nd

            Annotations:

            • The nobilty. 4000 court nobility who had ancestry tracked to before 1400. Nobless de robe- legal and administrative  nobles (1200 magistrates of the parlements are included).
            1. Privieges

              Annotations:

              • .Tried in special courts. .Exempy from the corvee/ military service/ the gabellr .Recived feudal views and had exclusive hunting/ fishing rights. ##
              1. Didn't want to lose any of this.
              2. Joining

                Annotations:

                • You could by your postition, inherit, direct appoitment by the King.
              3. 3rd

                Annotations:

                • The majority of Fance who worked the most and had the least.
                1. Bourgeisie

                  Annotations:

                  • Top end of the 3rd Estate. These were skilled craftmen/ buissness men and doctors and lawyers.
                  1. Peasents

                    Annotations:

                    • From the countryside.
                    1. Urban Workers

                      Annotations:

                      • Small properites, artisans. (the Sans-culottes)
                  2. Enlightnment.

                    Annotations:

                    • New ideas and ways of life came to head thesew challenged the old ways. These included Voiltare, Diderot and Turgot.
                  3. Poltical
                    1. Foreign policy
                      1. Seven years war

                        Annotations:

                        • Lost most of there overseas land to Britain.
                        1. American war of Independence

                          Annotations:

                          • Provided finacial/ military support. Helped to bring defeat to the Britsh but it also meant the soliders saw liberty/ democracy, the war also significantly added to France's debt.
                        2. Political crisis, 1787-8

                          Annotations:

                          • Calonne was replaces by Beinne, he also tried to reform the tax systems but this lead to, Louis exiling the Parlement of Paris to Troyes, 15th August, which resulted in he Revot of the Notables. Riots broke out in certin area's of he country.
                          • 16th August 1788 Louis suspeneded all payment to the royal treasury - declaring the crown bankrupt. 1st May 1789 Louis agreeded to the meeting of the Estate Generals. The King recalled Necker in September 1788.
                        3. Economical
                          1. Tax System
                            1. Direct
                              1. Taile

                                Annotations:

                                • Was a land tax paid by the 3rd Estate
                                1. Capitation

                                  Annotations:

                                  • Poll tax that the 3rd and in theory the second estate paid.
                                  1. Vingtieme

                                    Annotations:

                                    • 5% levy on all incomes tha ws paid by the 3rd Estate.
                                    1. Tithes

                                      Annotations:

                                      • A tax paid to the church bby landowners based on the amount of crops grown. This was the largest single landowner. It was meant to provide for parish preists/ the poor/  the upkeep of church buildings but it really went to bishops/ abbots back pockets.
                                    2. Indirect
                                      1. Gabelle

                                        Annotations:

                                        • Salt tax that everyone paid.
                                        1. Aidas

                                          Annotations:

                                          • A tax on food and drink
                                          1. Octrois

                                            Annotations:

                                            • A tax on goods entering a town.
                                          2. Thee 1st Estate didn't pay any.
                                            1. Tax farming

                                              Annotations:

                                              • How the taxes were collected but not all of the taxes collected reached the treasury- making the crown broke.
                                            2. Venality

                                              Annotations:

                                              • A system where certin jobs were bought and transferred on to descendants.  This was very corrupt as the occupants couldn't be dismissed.
                                              1. Corveee

                                                Annotations:

                                                • Free fourced labour that was done by the 3rd Estate.
                                                1. The crown had to borrow alot of money to make up for the lack of income.
                                                  1. Financial Crisis, 1786

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • Calonne (Controller - Genral) told Louis that the goverment was on the verge of bankruptcy. The war with America/ not enough money made from taxes caused the deficit increase.
                                                    • To short this out the crown borrowd more money from abroad. 1786 Calone decided to reform the tax system by replacing the vintieme with a singke land tax (this would effect everyonrr in the 3 Estates). Abonding the controls on Grain/ internal customs- to stimulate the economy. And restoring National Confidence so new loans could be raised.
                                                    • They went to the Assembly of Notables instead of the Estate Generals. They meant in February 1787 and they didn't want to go along with the reforms as it got ride of some of there privilages, they did agree to extend the taxes to all Estates. Calonne was dismissed in April 1787/
                                                    1. Economic Crisis, 1788/9
                                                      1. Bad Harvests

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • There was alot of bad harvests during the 1780's experscially in 1788, this causes the peasents to lose cash abd led to a mass unemployment. So food prices raised. This caused all other prices to raise and mass unemployment.
                                                        1. Food Shortages

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • People blamed the tithe-owners for the shortages and hated any food horders. There were riots caused over the lack of food.
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