Diet Related Diseases

Katie Leigh
Mind Map by Katie Leigh, updated more than 1 year ago
Katie Leigh
Created by Katie Leigh over 5 years ago



Resource summary

Diet Related Diseases
  1. Obesity
    1. Body accumulates excess fat.
      1. 20% or more over recommended weight = Obese
        1. Causes - Inactive Lifestyle, Lack of exercise, Poor food choices, Psychological problems, Hormonal imbalance and Unhealthy eating patterns.
          1. Symptoms & Health Risks - Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Arthritis, Infertility, Breathing difficulties.
            1. Treatment - Balanced, Low calorie diet and increasing exercise.
              1. Dietary Guidelines - Establish regular meal patterns, Choose white fish/poultry, avoid sugary foods, drink plenty water, replace rich sauces/gravies with low fat dressings, East a wide variety of fresh foods, use low fat products.
              2. Coronary Heart Disease
                1. CHD occurs when cholesterol become deposited on the walls of the coronary arteries narrowing them
                  1. Symptoms/ Effects - Angina...restricted blood supply causes shortness of breath & chest pain. Heart Attack...A blood clot can develop in a narrowed artery cutting off oxygen. Sudden Death
                    1. Cholesterol is a soft waxy substance found in every cell. Most is synthesised in the liver and the rest is obtained from animal foods.....It helps helps transport fats around the body in the blood.
                      1. CHD Risk Factors - Smoking, obesity, lack of exercise, excess alcohol, high stress levels, high blood pressure, family history, diabetes.
                        1. Dietary Guidelines - Reduced sat. fat intake, include mono/poly unsaturated fats in diet, increase fibre, reduce salt, functional foods.
                        2. Osteoporosis
                          1. Causes the bones to become thin & porous. Loss of bone mass causes brittle bones, most common in post-menopausal women.
                            1. Risk Factors - Gender..Females more likely, Age..Risk increases with age, Heredity..Family history increases risk, Diet...Lack of calcium and vit D, Lack of exercise.
                              1. Reduce Risk - Increase calcium, Vit D & C, Balance protein intake, Include fish oils in the diet, avoid alcohol and smoking, increase exercise.
                                1. Symptoms - Fragile, Brittle bones, loss of height, neck and back pain, humped back, bone fractures.
                                2. Diabetes
                                  1. Deficiency in the production of Insulin by the pancreas or the ineffectivness of the insulin produced. Glucose cannot be taken uo by cells from energy producation. Results in a high glucose level in the blood damaging organs.
                                    1. It is a chronic disease.
                                      1. Type 1 - Insulin Dependent...pancrease fails to produce insulin. More likely in children/teens. Controlled by insulin injections & diet.
                                        1. Type 2 - Non-Insulin Dependent...Body unable to respond properly to insulin produced. More common in adults. Controlled by diet and/or tablets which control sugar levels.
                                        2. Symptoms - Excessive Thirst, Weight Loss, Blurred vision, tiredness, frequent urination.
                                          1. Treatment - Diabetics are advised to follow a healthy eating plan and exercise regularly to maintain a healthy weight. Some take medication or insulin injections.
                                            1. Complications - Blindness/Visual Impairment resulting from damaged blood vessels in the retina, Kidney failure due to high blood glucose levels & high blood pressure, Heart disease & Strokes.
                                              1. Dietary Guidelines - Balanced, Regular meals to avoid hypo (low) of a hyper (high), follow a low glycaemic diet (GI), increase fibre, avoid salt, reduce sugar, reduce fried/fatty foods.
                                              2. Bowel Disorders
                                                1. Constipation, Haemorrhoids, diverticular diease, cancer and irritable bowel syndrome.
                                                  1. Reduce Risks - Follow a high fibre diet, increase exercise, drink more water.
                                                    1. Benefits of a High Fibre Diet - Adds bulk giving feeling of fullness, Helps speed up the movement of food through the bowels, slows the release of glucose, helps lower cholesterol.
                                                    2. Coeliac Disease
                                                      1. Chronic Disease caused by a gluten intolerance. Damages the gut causing flattening of the villi. Decreases the surface area for nutrient absorption.
                                                        1. Symptoms - Weight Loss, lethargy, bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, vitamin deficiency.
                                                          1. Treatment/Dietary Guidelines - Exclude all gluten foods, look for gluten free symbol, base diet on naturally gluten free foods, include rice and corn in the diet, a range of gluten free foods are available.
                                                          2. Dental Disease
                                                            1. Dental caries/tooth decay, periodontal disease.
                                                              1. Caused by plaque. Plaque consists of a mixture of saliva, food particles and streptoccal batceria which forms a coating on the teeth. Plaque can calcify if allowed to accumulate along the gum line. This can cause inflammation of the gums.
                                                                1. Treatment - Reduce intake of sugar by replace sugar rich foods with fruit/veg, use artificial sweetners, drink water instead of fizzy drinks.
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