INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY

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INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY
  1. COMPONENTS OF THE 'IS'
    1. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
      1. Heart and Blood
      2. MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM
        1. Network of Reticular Fibres
          1. Phagocytes (ESP macrophages)
          2. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
            1. Organ of the Lymphatic System
              1. PRIMARY LYMPHOID ORGANS -production sites of immune cells -maturation sites (absence of antigens)
                1. Bone marrow
                  1. Thymus
                  2. SECONDARY LYMPHOID ORGANS -maturation sites for antigen-driven immune cells
                    1. Adenoid
                      1. Tonsils
                        1. Lymph nodes
                          1. Spleen
                            1. MALT
                            2. LYMPH CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
                              1. Lymphatic vessels
                        2. CELLS OF THE 'IS'
                          1. Leukocytes
                            1. Have nuclei
                              1. Involved in phagocytosis, inflammation and adaptive immune response
                              2. Platelets
                                1. Do not have nuclei
                                  1. Involved in inflammation and bloood clotting
                                2. INNNATE IMMUNITY
                                  1. 2ND LINE OF DEFENCE (PHYSIOLOGICAL BARRIERS)
                                    1. Fever
                                      1. > 37 degree celcius
                                        1. initiated by PYROGENS
                                          1. BENEFITS
                                            1. reduced iron availability
                                              1. inhibition of microbial multiplication
                                                1. increase metabolic rate
                                              2. Inflammation
                                                1. Symptoms
                                                  1. Redness ( increased RBC )
                                                    1. Heat ( increased blood flow )
                                                      1. Pain ( stimulation of nerve endings )
                                                        1. Oedema ( swelling )
                                                        2. Stages
                                                          1. 1. Tissue injury by release chemical signals (HISTAMINE) 2. Dilation and increased leakiness of local blood vesssels. 3. Phagocytes consume bacteria and cell debris
                                                          2. Release of cytokines
                                                            1. Vasodilation
                                                            2. Phagocytosis
                                                              1. 1. Attachment
                                                                1. 2. Ingestion
                                                                  1. 3. Killing
                                                                    1. 4. Degradation
                                                                    2. Antimicrobial proteins
                                                                      1. Complement System
                                                                        1. 3 pathways : classical, lectin and alternative
                                                                        2. Interferons
                                                                          1. 3 major types : IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma
                                                                          2. Iron-binding Proteins
                                                                            1. SIDESPHORES (to steal iron from host proteins)
                                                                            2. Antimicrobial peptides
                                                                              1. Eg. Bacteriocins, Defensins, Magainins, Protegrins
                                                                          3. 1ST LINE OF DEFENCE (PHYSICAL BARRIERS)
                                                                            1. Antibacterial defense eg. SALIVA and TEARS
                                                                              1. Prevents entry eg. SKIN
                                                                                1. Traps dirt and microbes eg. MUCUS LININGS
                                                                                  1. Low pH killls eg. STOMACH ACID
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