Introduction to Immunology

Noor Amelia
Mind Map by Noor Amelia, updated more than 1 year ago
Noor Amelia
Created by Noor Amelia over 5 years ago
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Introduction to Immunology
  1. Immune system
    1. Not a specific organ or tissue
      1. Include various cells, tissue and organs
        1. Working collectively
          1. Defend against harmful pathogens, cells and subtances
        2. Cell of the immune system
          1. Leukocytes
            1. Have nuclei
              1. Involves in phagocytosis, inflammation,adaptive immune response
              2. Platelets
                1. Do not have nuclei
                  1. Involved in inflammation and blood clotting
              3. Lines of denfence
                1. First line
                  1. External physical barriers
                    1. e.g: skin
                  2. Second line
                    1. Internal physiology barriers
                      1. e.g: inflammation
                        1. create hostile environment for the invaders
                          1. 4 components
                            1. Fever
                              1. Initiated by pyrogens
                                1. Change the settings of hypothalamus
                                2. Benefits
                                  1. Reduced iron availability
                                    1. Inhibition of microbial multiplication
                                      1. Increase metabolic rate
                                    2. Inflammation
                                      1. Classical symptoms
                                        1. Redness
                                          1. heat
                                            1. Pain
                                              1. Odema
                                              2. Releases of cytokinese
                                                1. Vasodilation
                                                2. Phagocytosis
                                                  1. Phagocytes
                                                    1. Possess lysosome
                                                    2. Antimicrobial proteins
                                                      1. Complement system
                                                        1. Consists 30 proteins
                                                          1. Work in cascade reactions to destroy pathogens
                                                            1. 3 pathways
                                                              1. Classical
                                                                1. Lectin
                                                                  1. Alternative
                                                                2. Interferons
                                                                  1. Are cytokines involved in immune regulation, particularly against viruses
                                                                    1. 3 Major types
                                                                      1. IFN-alpha
                                                                        1. IFN-beta
                                                                          1. IFN-Gamma
                                                                        2. Iron binding proteins
                                                                          1. Many pathogens require iron for enzyme activities
                                                                            1. Limit their growth
                                                                              1. Hemoglobin, Lactoferrin ,Transferrin
                                                                              2. Antimicrobial peptides
                                                                                1. Short proteins less than 50 peptides
                                                                                  1. Kills bacteria by inserting themselves into the membranes
                                                                                    1. Examples
                                                                                      1. Bacteriocins
                                                                                        1. Defensins
                                                                                          1. Magainins
                                                                                            1. Protegrins
                                                                                  2. Third line
                                                                                    1. Adaptive immune response
                                                                                  3. Component of immune system
                                                                                    1. Cardiovascular system
                                                                                      1. Heart and blood vessels
                                                                                      2. Mononuclear Phagocyte System
                                                                                        1. Network of reticular fibre
                                                                                          1. Phagocytes (macrophages)
                                                                                        2. Lymphatic system
                                                                                          1. Organs
                                                                                            1. Primary lymphoid organs
                                                                                              1. Bone marrow & thymus
                                                                                                1. Production sites of immune system
                                                                                                  1. Maturation sites for immune system in the absence of antigen
                                                                                                  2. Secondnary lymphoid organs
                                                                                                    1. Adenoid,Tonsils,Lymph nodes, Spleen ,MALT
                                                                                                      1. Maturation sites for antigen driven immune cells
                                                                                                      2. Lymph circulatory system
                                                                                                        1. Lymphatic vessels
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