Isabel O'Neill
Mind Map by Isabel O'Neill, updated more than 1 year ago
Isabel O'Neill
Created by Isabel O'Neill over 5 years ago


AS - Level Psychology (Exam 1) Mind Map on Attachment, created by Isabel O'Neill on 04/29/2016.

Resource summary



  1. Explanations of attachment
    1. Learning Theory: Says all behaviour is learned rather than inborn
      1. Social Learning Theory
        1. Learning through observing others and imitating behaviours that are rewarded
          1. Albert Bandura- approaches
          2. Classical Conditioning
            1. Learning through association
              1. Neutral stimulus paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus, produces a conditioned response
                1. Ivan Pavlov- APPROACHES
                2. Operant Conditioning
                  1. Learning through reinforcement
                    1. Attachment occurs because child seeks person who can supply reward
                    2. Drive Reduction theory: a 'drive' motivates behaviour- for example hunger creates drive to reduce the discomfort. When fed, the drive is reduced and pleasure replaces discomfort
                      1. Positive reinforcement; behaviour would be more likely to be repeated because it was rewarding
                    3. Evaluation:
                    4. Bolwby's Monotropic attachment
                      1. the idea that one attachment is of special significance over another
                        1. Critical period: Babies have innate drive to attach to survive- this must happen between 3-6 months (Critical period) in order for the infant to make significant attachments in the future
                          1. Social releases: E.g. smiling, 'baby face' are innate mechanisms which explain how attachments to infants are formed- elicits caregiving.
                            1. internal working model: Mental model of the world which enables individuals to predict and control their environment. Short term, gives them insight& enables true relationship to form. Longterm, acts as a template for all future relationships because it generates expectations.
                              1. Continuity Hypothesis- idea that emotionally secure infants go on to be emotionally secure, trusting, socially confident adults
                              2. Evaluation


                                • Schaffer & Emerson: found that infants form multiple attachments, but also signals that mother is primary attachment figure
                                • Lorenz: Provide evidence that supports idea that attachment is innate
                            2. Types of attachment
                              1. Ainsworth's strange situation: to test how infants react to situations of stress and anxiety
                                1. Procedure: 8 episodes- each designed to highlight certain behaviours. Key feature is stranger/caregiver leaving/entering
                                  1. Findings: Combined results of multiple studies- 106 middle-class infants observed. 3 main patterns found- Insecure-Avoidant, Secure, Insecure-Resistant
                                    1. Insecure-Avoidant: Children who avoid social situations. Little response to separation, don't seek proximity to caregiver on reunion. Happy to explore with or without the presence of their caregiver.
                                      1. Insecure-Resistant: Both seeks and resists intimacy/ social situations. Respond to separation from caregiver with extreme stress, behave similarly towards strangers.
                                        1. Secure attachment: Those who have a harmonious relationship with their caregiver. Unlikely to cry when caregiver leaves, shows some distress when left with a stranger. When feeling anxious they seek close proximity and are easily soothed- may be reluctant to leave their side prematurely. Comfortable with social interaction and intimacy
                                        2. Evaluation
                                      2. Cultural Variations in attachment
                                        1. Key study: Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988)
                                          1. Procedure: Conducted a meta analysis from 32 studies on attachment behaviour. Altogether 2000 strange situations, 8 different countries.
                                            1. Findings: Variation between cultures/countries small, secure attachment was the most common in every country, with IA the next, then IR. Variation within cultures 1.5 times greater than variation between cultures.
                                          2. Bowlby's theory of Maternal Deprivation: that Prolonged emotional deprivation would have long-term consequences
                                            1. Value of maternal care: Bowlby believed that Infants needed to experience a warm, continuous and intimate relationship to develop emotionally
                                              1. Critical Period: Prolonged separation will only have a harmful effect if it happens before 2 1/2 years, and if there is no substitute mother available
                                                1. Key Study: 44 Juvenile Thieves- Bowlby analysed case histories of his patients in Child Guidance Clinic, all children attending were emotionally maladjusted
                                                  1. 88 were studied- half had been caught stealing, other half were control group. Bowlby suggested half were thieves because they lacked empathy and shame.
                                                    1. Findings- those diagnosed as affectionless had experienced frequent separations from their mothers (86%). Almost none of the control had experienced separation. Suggests early separation linked to affectionless psychopathy
                                                      1. Has affected things like children care in hospitals- parents are now encouraged to stay with children
                                                      2. Internal validity: some may have never formed attachments in the first place, Privation not deprivation as there was never a bond to break-
                                                      3. Evaluation
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