Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Embryology, created by fiona.medic on 02/06/2014.

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Created by fiona.medic over 5 years ago
Long-answer questions HISTO & EMBRYOLOGY
Shireen Ahmed
Introductory Biology II: Embryology
Candice Young
The musculoskeletal system (mod 2, mod 10 (wk6), mod 11 (wk2)
Vicky O
Spanish Vocabulary- Beginner
New GCSE Maths
Sarah Egan
Embryology of the Reproductive System
Matthew Coulson
Early Embryology
Evan Mah
Anatomy and Physiology
Bebhinn Ryan
General Embryology 4 (CF4)
Liz Maas
General Embryology (CF1)
Liz Maas
1 pre-emryonic phase
1.1 week 1
1.1.1 zygote forms + divides to form blastocyst morula forms solid ball of cells blastocystic cavity develops blastocyst cells accumulate at one end to form inner cell mass outer lining of cells = trophoblast nutrition provided by endometrium blood vessels lining uterus fertilisation in uterine tube ciliated epithelium cilia beat ova/zygote towards uterus secretes mucous which catches ovum
1.1.2 zygote moves through unterine tube to uterine cavity blastula forms in uterine cavity each successive division is quicker
1.2 week 2
1.2.1 implantation occurs in uterine endometrial layer blastocyst burrows into endometrium trophoblast divides to form two layers chorionic villi with enzymes chorion helps with burrowing takes part in formation of placenta secretes human chorionic gonadotrophine tells ovaries to keep secreting hormones so blastocyst survives used to detect pregnancy formation of embryo maternal blood vessels are not in contact with fetal blood vessels diffusion occurs inner mass of cells in blastocyst form two balimar discs epiblast on top amniotic cavity is above hypoblast on bottom yolk sac below provides nutrition waste products go into alliotic cavity development of placenta matures by 18-20 weeks functions foetal nutrition transport of waste + gases immunity
1.3 week 3
1.3.1 gastrulation formation of germ layers epiblast proliferates cells displace hypoblast ectoderm mesoderm endoderm
1.3.2 primitive streak between epiblast + hypoblast axis of embryo forms cells become specialised
1.3.3 development of somites lateral plate mesoderm splits to form somatic + splanchnic mesoderm paraxial mesoderm segments form somites intermediate plate mesoderm kidneys + reproductive system lateral plate mesoderm body cavities + coverings
1.3.4 early development of cardiovascular system
1.3.5 notochord formation cells sink down to form solid tube notochord releases chemicals that act on mesoderm formation of somites neurulation neural plate sinks down induces ectodermal cells in midline to form neural tube
2 embryonic period
2.1 neural tube
2.1.1 brain + spinal cord development
2.2 heart
2.2.1 starts to beat on day 24
2.3 urogenital system formation from intermediate mesoderm
2.4 43 pairs of somites
2.4.1 each one divides into 3 dermatome dermis of skin myotome muscles sclerotome bones inc vertebrae when migrate take never with them
2.5 limb buds form
2.6 neck development
2.6.1 pharyngeal arches
2.7 teratology
2.7.1 abnormal development
2.7.2 teratogens environmental factors which cause abnormal development risk posed depends on exposure during critical periods of development genetic constitution of embryo dosage of drug / chemical / factor
2.8 lateral folding of embryo into tube
2.8.1 endoderm forms gut, branches at head to form lungs + trachea
2.8.2 ectoderm forms outer layer of embryo
3 development of respiratory system
3.1 week 4 of gestation
3.1.1 respiratory diverticulum lung bud gives rise to epithelium + glands of bronchi
3.2 upper respiratory tract
3.2.1 pharyngeal arches derived from neural crest cells 1st +2nd arches = facial structures 4 (+2 rudimentary) 3rd arch = hyoid bone 4th +6th arches muscle of pharynx, larynx, upper oesophagus + laryngeal cartilages pharyngeal pouches lie in between arches give rise to head + neck structures but not to respiratory structures 4th lies between 4th + 6th arches respiratory primordium develops in midline caudal to 4th pouch larynotracheal groove gives rise to laryngotracheal diverticulum becomes invested with mesoderm + enlarges to form lung bud ventral outgrowth from foregut at 28 days gestation
3.3 lung development
3.3.1 at 4 weeks of gestation
3.3.2 from ventral wall of foregut
3.4 development of trachea + bronchi
3.4.1 lining of lung bud (endoderm) gives rise to glands + epithelium of respiratory tract
3.4.2 cartilage + muscle of lower respiratory tract from mesoderm investing laryngotracheal tube bronchial buds arise from growing tips of lung bud grow into primordia of pleural cavities pericardioperitoneal on each side splanchnic mesoderm gives rise to visceral pleura somatic mesoderm gives rise to parietal pleura give rise to primary bronchi bud to give secondary bronchi week 7 - surrounding mesenchyme (mesoderm) forms partitions around buds of tertiary bronchi gives rise to bronchopulmonary segments 10 in each lung
3.4.3 17 orders of branching by week 24 form respiratory bronchioles additional 7 orders of branching develop after birth
3.4.4 bronchial walls epithelium + glands form endoderm walls develop from investing mesoderm muscle, cartilage, capillaries, CT support
3.5 diaphram
3.5.1 originates from septum transversum located opposite to C3-C5 somites brings with it C3-C5 spinal nerves muscular body wall mesentery of oesophagus leuraperitoneal folds
3.6 abnormal development
3.6.1 failure of separation of trachea + oesophagus connected blind ended
3.6.2 surfactant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
3.6.3 ectopic lung lobes
3.6.4 abnormal bronchial divisions no functional significance

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