B1.3 The use and abuse of drugs

 ELeanor Turner
Mind Map by ELeanor Turner, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
 ELeanor Turner
Created by ELeanor Turner over 3 years ago
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GCSE Biology Mind Map on B1.3 The use and abuse of drugs, created by ELeanor Turner on 05/08/2016.

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B1.3 The use and abuse of drugs
1 Drugs
1.1 Extensively tested and trialled
1.1.1 Tested in the lab
1.1.1.1 1st stage: cells, tissues
1.1.1.2 2nd stage: live animals
1.1.1.3 Clinical trials
1.1.1.3.1 3rd stage: healthy volunteers
1.1.1.3.1.1 Low dosage at start
1.1.1.3.1.1.1 Slowly increased
1.1.1.3.1.1.1.1 Test for side effects
1.1.1.3.2 4th stage: patients with the illness
1.1.1.3.2.1 Optimum dosage found
1.1.1.3.2.1.1 Least side effects
1.1.1.3.2.2 5th stage: blind clinical trials- patients split into two groups
1.1.1.3.2.2.1 One group given the real drug, another given a placebo
1.1.1.3.2.2.1.1 Allows for placebo effect
1.1.1.3.2.2.1.1.1 Patient expects drug to work so feels better, even if the 'drug' is doing nothing
1.1.1.3.2.2.1.2 Placebo
1.1.1.3.2.2.1.2.1 Substance like the drug being tested but doesn't do anything
1.1.1.3.2.2.2 Sometimes trials are double blind
1.1.1.3.2.2.2.1 Patient nor doctor knows which is the placebo
1.1.2 For toxicity, efficacy and dose
2 Thalidomide
2.1 Intended as a sleeping pill
2.1.1 Found effective against morning sickness
2.1.1.1 Has not been tested on pregnant women
2.1.1.1.1 Many babies born with severe limb abnormalities
2.1.1.1.1.1 Drug banned
2.2 Resulted in more rigorous drug testing
2.3 Now used to treat other diseases
2.3.1 Leprosy
3 Legal and illegal drugs
3.1 Medicinal
3.1.1 Some require prescription
3.1.1.1 Morphine
3.1.1.2 Some do not
3.1.1.2.1 Paracetamol
3.1.1.3 Statins
3.1.1.3.1 Lower risk of heart and circulatory diseases
3.1.1.3.1.1 Also lower blood cholesterol
3.1.1.3.1.1.1 And risk of heart disease in diabetic patients
3.2 Recreational
3.2.1 Used for fun
3.2.1.1 Legal
3.2.1.1.1 Alcohol
3.2.1.1.1.1 Slows reactions
3.2.1.1.1.2 Liver disease
3.2.1.1.1.3 Brain damage
3.2.1.1.2 Nicotine
3.2.1.1.2.1 Cancer
3.2.1.1.2.2 Addiction
3.2.1.1.2.3 Disease of heart and lungs
3.2.1.2 Illegal
3.2.1.2.1 Ecstasy
3.2.1.2.2 Cannabis
3.2.1.2.2.1 Can cause mental health problems
3.2.1.2.2.2 Considered a gateway drug
3.2.1.2.3 Heroin
3.2.1.2.3.1 All three can cause heart and circulatory problems
3.2.1.2.4 Addictive
3.3 Performance enhancing
3.3.1 Improve an athlete's performance in sport
3.3.1.1 Anabolic steroids
3.3.1.1.1 Increase muscle size
3.3.1.1.2 Can lead to high blood pressure
3.3.1.2 Stimulants
3.3.1.2.1 Increase heart rate
3.3.1.3 Arguments against
3.3.1.3.1 Unfair
3.3.1.3.2 Athletes may not have been informed about the risks
3.3.1.4 Arguments for
3.3.1.4.1 Athletes can make their own decisions
3.3.1.4.2 Sport is not fair anyway, different training facilities etc
3.3.2 Some illegal, some prescribed
3.3.3 All banned from sporting bodies
3.4 The overall impact of legal drugs is
3.4.1 Much greater than the impact of illegal drugs
3.4.1.1 More people use them
3.4.2 Have negative effects on economy and society
4 Effects of drugs
4.1 Change body chemistry
4.1.1 Results in
4.1.1.1 Becoming addicted
4.2 If addicts do not take the drug they have
4.2.1 Withdrawal symptoms
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