The organelles of Eukaryotic cells

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Biology Unit F211

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The organelles of Eukaryotic cells
1 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
1.1 A series of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space. The surface is covered with Ribosomes.
1.2 Folds and Processes proteins that were synthesised by the ribosomes
2 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
2.1 Similar to RER but with no ribosomes
2.2 Synthesises and Processes Lipids
3 Vesicle
3.1 A small, fluid filled sac in the cytoplasm. Surrounded by a membrane
3.2 Transports substances in and out of the cell, and between organelles. Formed by the Golgi apparatus or formed at the surface of the cell
4 Golgi Apparatus
4.1 A group of fluid filled flattened sacs. Vesicles are often seen at the edge of sacs.
4.2 It processes and packages new lipids and proteins. It also makes lysosomes
5 Mitochondrian
5.1 Usually oval shaped. Have a double membrane. The inner membrane is folded to form structures called cristae. Inside is the matrix, which contains enzymes involved in respiration.
5.2 The site of aerobic respiration where ATP (energy) is produced. They're found in large numbers in cells that are very active and require lots of ATP
6 Chloroplasts
6.1 A small, flattened structure found in plant cells. Surrounded by a double membrane, and also contains membranes called thylakoid membranes. These membranes are stacked up to form Grana. These Grana are linked by lamellae.
6.2 The site where photosynthesis takes place. Some parts of photosynthesis happen in the Grana, and other parts happen in the Stroma.
7 Centriole
7.1 Small, hollow cylinders, containing a ring of microtubules
7.2 Involved with the separation of chromosomes during cell division
8 Cilia
8.1 Small, hair-like structures found on the surface of some animal cells. In a cross section, they have an outer membrane and a ring of nine pairs of protein microtubules inside, with a single pair of microtubules in the middle
8.2 The microtubules allow the cilia to move. This movement allows the cell to move substances along the cell surface
9 Flagellum
9.1 Similar to cilia but longer. They stick out from the cell surface and are surrounded by the plasma membrane. Contain two microtubules in the centre, and nine pairs around the edge. The microtubules contract so the flagellum move. Flagella are used to propel the cell (eg a sperm)

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