Globalisation and Crime

Molly Williams
Mind Map by Molly Williams, updated more than 1 year ago
Molly Williams
Created by Molly Williams about 5 years ago
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Description

A-Level Crime and Deviance Mind Map on Globalisation and Crime, created by Molly Williams on 05/30/2016.

Resource summary

Globalisation and Crime
  1. Increasing interconnectedness of societies
    1. Global criminal economy
      1. Castells (1998) – global criminal economy is now worth over £1 trillion per annum
        1. Arms trafficking, Trafficking women and children, Sex tourism, Green crimes, Trafficking endangered species
        2. There is a demand and supply side
          1. Scale of transnational crime is due to demand for its products and services in the West
            1. But could not function without the supply side that provides the drugs and sex workers
              1. Afghanistan has a large population of people in poverty – drug cultivation is an attractive option that requires little technology and commands high prices
                1. Colombia – 20% of population depends on cocaine production – outsells all other exports
          2. Global risk consciousness
            1. Globalisation creates new insecurities and produces a new mentality of “risk consciousness”
              1. e.g. increased movement of people (migrants seeking work or asylum seekers) has caused anxieties of people the West about the risks of crime and the need to protect borders
                1. Knowledge about risks comes from media (can question validity of source as views can be exaggerated) – e.g. immigration – media has created moral panics about the threat as they are portrayed as terrorists – leads to hate crimes against miniorities in Europe
                  1. Result
                    1. Intensification of social control – toughening borders (fine airlines if passengers don’t have documents)
                      1. No legal limits of how long a person can be held in immigration detention
                        1. CCTV and thermal imaging devices - Increased attempts at international cooperation – ‘wars’ on terror and drugs – increased since 9/11
                    2. Globalisation, capitalism and crime
                      1. Ian Taylor (1997) – globalisation has led to a change in patterns and extent of crime
                        1. Free rein of market forces = great inequalities and rise of crime
                          1. Globalisation has created crime and both ends
                            1. TNCs switch manufacturing to low-wage countries – unemployment, poverty = crime
                              1. Causes governments to have little control over economy
                                1. Marketization has caused people to see themselves as individual consumers – undermines social cohesion
                                  1. Left realists – increasing the materialistic culture – causes relative deprivation which leads to crime
                                2. Also creates criminal opportunities on a grand scale for elites
                                  1. Deregulation of financial markets – insider trading and movements of funds to avoid taxation - Creation of EU – fraudulent claims for subsides – estimated $7 billion per annum in EU
                                3. Useful in linking global trends but does not explain how the changes make people behave in criminal ways – not all poor people commit crime
                              2. Patterns of criminal organisation
                                1. Hobbes and Dunningham – the way crime is organised is linked to economic changes brought by globalisation
                                  1. Individuals with contacts acting as a ‘hub’ around which a loose-knit network forms
                                    1. Contrasts with large scale ‘mafia’ style criminal organisations
                                      1. ‘Glocal’ Organisations: New forms of organisation sometimes have international links (drugs trade) but crime is still rooted in its local context
                                        1. locally based with global connections
                                      2. Changes associated with globalisation has led to changes in the patterns of crime
                                        1. However – not clear that these patterns are new or that the old ones have disappeared
                                      3. McMafia: Glenny (2008)
                                        1. Refers to organisations that emerged in Russia and E. Europe following the fall of communism and breakdown of the Soviet Union (1989) – origins of transnational crime (coincided with deregulation of global markets)
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