184.108.40.206 The mother is associated with the pleasure of being fed
(unconditioned response) with the mother (conditioned stimulus).
The mother is then able to produce the response even without food.
1.1.2 Operant Conditioning
220.127.116.11 When the child is feed or attended to, it's needs are satisfied.
This acts as a reward. The child is likely to repeat the
behaviour. The primary care giver becomes the source of
1.1.3 WEAKNESS: Harlow and Harlow (1962) Did an experiment
on infant monkeys and found they preferred a soft "monkey"
rather than a food providing "monkey". Therefore attachment
is not based on food but responsiveness.
1.1.4 Efe tribe children are breastfed by many women but still are mostly attached to their mothers.
1.2 Bowlby's Theory
1.2.1 Attachment is an innate response
18.104.22.168 Lorenz (1937) Imprinting
1.2.2 A care-giver is necessary for the child's survival
1.2.3 Critical Period
22.214.171.124 The critical period is the time where an attachment must form or it is
impossible. There are long-term consequences of child without an
attachment. This is period is the time up to 2.5 years
126.96.36.199 The idea that a chld has one main
attachment which is more important than
any other attachment she/he may form
1.2.5 Internal working model
188.8.131.52 Attachment is much like a blueprint for future relationships. This 'blueprint'
is the internal working model. Securely attached children will form healthy
relationships but insecurely attached children may believe they are not
worthy of love or have intimacy issues.
1.2.6 STRENGTH: Hazan and Shaver (1987) used a 'love quiz' and found a link between
secure attachments and healthy relationships in later life. Insecurely attached children
were jealous adults
1.2.7 WEAKNESS: The critical period is too extreme. Children often
develop string bonds with their adoptive parents years after the
2 A reciprocated bond between two people
(infant and care-giver)
3 Types of Attachment
3.1 Ainsworth: The Strange Situation
3.1.1 This was an observation on the behaviour of infants.
A stranger enters the room and the parent leaves after
having a few moments with the child in the room.
Then after some time the parent returns and the
stranger leaves quickly
3.1.2 Securely Attached
184.108.40.206 The child explores the room, and cries when the mother
leaves. The stranger is no comfort and the child calms down
once the mother returns
3.1.3 Insecure-Avoidantly Attached
220.127.116.11 The child does not explore and is indifferent to the surroundings and
people. The child shows no change when the mother leaves and
3.1.4 Insecure-Resistantly Attached
18.104.22.168 The child does not explore at all and is very distressed when the mother leaves. When the mother
returns the child does not calm down for a long time. The child also may attempt to 'punish' the
mother by pushing her away and huging her at the same time.
3.1.5 Findings: 66% secure, 22% avoidant, and 12% resistant.
3.1.6 WEAKNESS: This observation had low population validity as all the participants were middle-class
americans. This is a weakness because it cannot be generalised to the whole target population, as they may
act differently in this situation.
3.1.7 Is the strange situation unethical? You may argue yes because the infants are under a
considerable amount of stress. However Ainsworth argues that it is no more stressful than
the child would experience on a regular basis