Chapter 4

frankie osborne
Mind Map by frankie osborne, updated more than 1 year ago
frankie osborne
Created by frankie osborne over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Chapter 4, created by frankie osborne on 02/25/2014.

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Chapter 4
1 Review of IP Addresses
1.1 While IP addressing schemes have had to adapt, the basic IP address structure for IPv4 remains the same. To send and receive messages on an IP network, every network host must be assigned a unique 32-bit IP address. Because large binary numbers are difficult for people to read and understand, IP addresses are usually displayed in dotted-decimal notation. In dotted-decimal notation, each of the four octets is converted to a decimal number separated by a decimal point
1.2 IP addresses are hierarchical. A hierarchy is like a family tree with parents at the top and children connected to them below. For a network, this means that part of the 32-bit number identifies the network (parent), while the rest of the bits identify the host (child). In the early days of the Internet, there were so few organizations needing to connect to the Internet, that networks were assigned by only the first 8 bits (first octet) of the IP address. This left the remaining 24 bits to be used for local host addresses.
1.3 To create more possible network designations, the 32-bit address space was organized into five classes. Three of these classes, A, B, and C, provide addresses that can be assigned to individual hosts or networks. The other two classes, D and E, are reserved for multicast and experimental use.
1.4 In addition to creating separate classes, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) decided to reserve some of the Internet address space for use by private networks. Private networks have no connection to public networks. Private network addresses are not to be routed across the Internet. This allows multiple networks in various locations to use the same private addressing scheme without creating addressing conflicts.
2 Subnetting a Network
2.1 In the original IP address hierarchy, there are two levels: a network and a host. In a classful addressing scheme, the first three leading bit values are used to determine that an IP address is either a Class A, B, or C. When an address is identified by class, the number of bits that make up the network ID and the number of bits that make up the host ID are known.
2.2 A single Class A, B, or C network address space can be divided into multiple subnetworks by using bits from the host address space to designate the subnet ID. As an example, an organization using a Class C address space has two offices in different buildings. To make the network easier to manage, the network administrators want each location to have a logically separate network. Taking two bits from the host address increases the subnet mask length from the default 24 bits to 26 bits, or 255.255.255.192.
3 Custom Subnet Mask
3.1 A default subnet mask and a custom subnet mask differ from each other in that the default subnet masks only change on octet boundaries. For instance, the default subnet mask for a Class A network is 255.0.0.0. Custom subnet masks take bits from the host ID portion of the IP address and add them to the default subnet mask.
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