MODERNISATION: ECONOMIC 1881-1904

Emily Littlejohn
Mind Map by Emily Littlejohn, updated more than 1 year ago
Emily Littlejohn
Created by Emily Littlejohn about 6 years ago
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Russian History
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MODERNISATION: ECONOMIC 1881-1904
1 Alexander II
1.1 After Crimean defeat:
1.1.1 railway building programme
1.1.2 limited spread of factories
2 1881 RU economic far development behind W.EU
2.1 huge potential
2.1.1 vast supplies of natural resources
2.1.2 plenty of manpower
3 Alexander III
3.1 'Industrial revolution' took off
3.2 His and Nicholas II finance ministers
3.2.1 Vshnegradsky 1887-92
3.2.1.1 Aims
3.2.1.1.1 improve RU finances
3.2.1.1.2 build up gold reserves
3.2.1.2 Methods
3.2.1.2.1 increase indirect taxes
3.2.1.2.2 drive to increase grain exports
3.2.1.2.3 reduce imports by increasing tariffs
3.2.1.2.4 The Tariff Act of 1891
3.2.1.2.4.1 protected from outside competition
3.2.1.2.4.1.1 iron
3.2.1.2.4.1.2 industrial machinary
3.2.1.2.4.1.3 raw cotton
3.2.1.3 Results
3.2.1.3.1 1891 import duties = 33%
3.2.1.3.2 1881-91 grain exports increased by 18% (of total RU exports
3.2.1.3.3 1892 budget = surplus
3.2.1.3.4 peasants suffered
3.2.1.3.4.1 heavy indirect taxation > reduced limited purchasing power
3.2.1.3.4.2 price goods increased because of import taxes
3.2.1.3.4.3 grain requisitioning
3.2.1.3.4.4 1891 bad harvest = widespread famine
3.2.1.3.4.4.1 many thousands died
3.2.1.3.4.4.1.1 Vshnegradsky dismissed 1892
3.2.2 Witte 1892-1903
3.2.2.1 V. forward thinking
3.2.2.1.1 caused controversy
3.2.2.1.2 agreed with Vshnegradsky
3.2.2.2 committed to economic modernisation
3.2.2.2.1 preserve RU 'great power' status
3.2.2.2.2 only way living standard would improve
3.2.2.2.3 curb unrest & revolutionary activity
3.2.2.3 Aims
3.2.2.3.1 solve
3.2.2.3.1.1 insufficient capital
3.2.2.3.1.2 lack of technical & managerial expertise
3.2.2.3.1.3 insufficient manpower in right areas
3.2.2.4 Methods
3.2.2.4.1 got industrialisation directed 'from above'
3.2.2.4.1.1 state capitalism
3.2.2.4.2 protective tariffs
3.2.2.4.3 heavy taxation
3.2.2.4.4 forced exports
3.2.2.4.5 loans from abroad
3.2.2.4.6 raise interest rates
3.2.2.4.7 Jan 1897 new rouble
3.2.2.4.7.1 value of gold
3.2.2.4.7.1.1 preserve its worth
3.2.2.4.8 encouraged foreign experts and workers
3.2.2.4.8.1 more modern techniques
3.2.2.4.9 Buying of private railways in 1880s &expanding
3.2.2.5 Results
3.2.2.5.1 increased foreign investment because there was more business confidence
3.2.2.5.1.1 mining
3.2.2.5.1.2 metal
3.2.2.5.1.3 oil industry
3.2.2.5.1.4 banking
3.2.2.5.1.5 FR = biggest investor
3.2.2.5.1.5.1 1/3 of all foreign capital
3.2.2.5.1.6 1895 in millions of roubles = 280
3.2.2.5.1.6.1 1900 = 911
3.2.2.5.2 new rouble stopped currency fluctuating
3.2.2.5.3 RU forced into industrial revolution
3.2.2.5.3.1 expanding industrial cities
3.2.2.5.4 railways
3.2.2.5.4.1 mid 1890s
3.2.2.5.4.1.1 66% whole railway system state owned
3.2.2.5.4.1.2 1905
3.2.2.5.4.1.2.1 66%
3.2.2.5.4.1.2.2 59,616km railways
3.2.2.5.4.1.2.2.1 major engineering feat accomplished
4 Railways development (Indust. growth)
4.1 increased exploitation of RU raw materials
4.1.1 stimulated iron and coal industries & founded new indust. areas
4.2 outlet for exportation
4.2.1 funded by foreign investment
4.2.2 grain-growing areas could send produce to Black Sea ports
4.3 transports costs decreased
4.3.1 price of goods decreased
4.3.2 gov. gained new revenue
4.3.2.1 freight charges
4.3.2.2 passenger fares
4.4 Trans-Siberian Railway
4.4.1 huge indust. stimulus
4.4.2 socially gave a psychological boost
4.4.3 massive economic benefits
4.4.3.1 construction
4.4.3.1.1 massive gov. order for metals and coal
4.4.3.1.2 peasants encouraged to emigrate & prosper in Siberia
4.4.3.1.2.1 less strain on densely populated areas W.RU
4.4.3.1.2.2 fewer restrictions on life (far away from capital)
4.4.3.1.2.2.1 attractive option
4.4.3.2 farming in region increased
4.4.3.2.1 supplied towns and cities of W & foreign countries
4.4.4 strategic benefits
4.4.4.1 transport troops
4.4.4.2 transport military supplies
5 River & sea navigation improved
5.1 increase in the no. steam ships
5.1.1 BUT
5.1.1.1 most overseas trade = carried in foreign ships
5.1.1.2 RU roads remained poor
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