1.1 COLD WAR: was just getting started (e.g. Czechoslovakia, March 1948)
1.2 AIMS:Stalin wanted to destroy Germany – Britain and the USA wanted to rebuild Germany.
1.3 BIZONIA: The Russians were taking German machinery back to the USSR. In January 1947, Britain and the USA
joined their two zones together to try to get German industry going. They called the new zone Bi-zonia (‘two zones’).
1.4 NEW CURRENCY: On 1 June, America and France announced that they wanted to
create the new country of West Germany; and on 23 June they introduced a new
currency into ‘Bizonia’ and western Berlin. The next day the Russians stopped all road
and rail traffic into Berlin. The Soviet Union saw the 1948 Berlin crisis as an attempt
to undermine Soviet influence in eastern Germany.
1.5 AMERICAN AID: Congress voted for Marshall Aid on 31 March 1948.
Immediately, the Russians started searching all road and rail traffic into Berlin.
2 The USSR had disagreed with USA and Great Britain
over what was to happen in Germany. Germany was
divided into four zones
3 There had also been disagreements regarding reparations.Both Britain and USA
wanted Germany to recover economically but Russia had gained the right to take
10% of industrial equipment in Western Germany and what ever they wanted from
their zone in East Germany
4.1 COLD WAR WORSENED:It almost started an all-out war.
4.2 EAST & WEST GERMANY: Germany split up. In May 1949, America, Britain and France united their zones into the Federal
Republic of Germany (West Germany). In October 1949, Stalin set up the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) .
4.3 NATO & THE WARSAW PACT:In 1949, the western Allies set up NATO(North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) as a
defensive alliance against Russia. NATO countries surrounded Russia; in 1955, the Soviet Union set up the
Warsaw Pact – an alliance of Communist states.
4.4 ARMS RACE:After Berlin, the USA and the USSR realised that they were in a competition for world domination.
They began to build up their armies and weapons.
5 The American Army wanted to fight its way into Berlin – that would have caused
a war. Instead, Truman decided to supply Berlin by air. The situation was bad at
first, but things got better as the blockade went on. On 12 May 1949, Stalin
re-opened the borders.