Britain 1945 - 1990

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

History Mind Map on Britain 1945 - 1990, created by ChristianLowe on 04/27/2013.

Created by ChristianLowe over 6 years ago
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Britain 1945 - 1990
1 Attlee, Churchill and Eden 1945-1957
1.1 Clement Attlee
1.1.1 General Election 1945 Labour - 393 Conservative - 213 Acts and Reforms National Insurance Act 1946 National Health Service Act 1946 Town and Country Planning Act 1947 750,000 new homes by 1948 Beveridge Report Key Figures Aneurin Bevan 'I stuffed their mouths with gold.' John Maynard-Keynes Consensus interventionist policy up until Thatcher 1979 Secures American loan of $3.75 billion Economy Nationalisation Marshall Aid Balance of Payments deficit Davaluation of the £ Exports still rose from £266 million in 1944 to £2.2 billion in 1950
1.2 Winston Churchill
1.2.1 General Election 1951 Labour - 295 Conservative 321 Key Figures Richard Austen Butler 'Butskellism' economic policy as Chancellor of the Exchequer Harold Macmillan Built 318,000 houses between 1952-52 as Minister for Housing Economy Continuation of Balance of Payments crisis Butler's proposal to let the pound float rejected Labour division in opposition between Attlee/Gaitskell and Bevan
1.3 Anthony Eden
1.3.1 General Election 1955 Labour - 277 Conservative - 345 Suez Crisis Nasser nationalises the Suez Canal in July 1956 Secret deal between Britain, France and Israel. Israel invade Sinai, Britain intervenes as peacekeepers Despite superb military planning, Britain withdraws due to US conditions regarding financial help
2 Macmillan and Wilson 1957-1970
2.1 Harold Macmillan
2.1.1 General Election 1959 Labour - 258 Conservative - 365 Key Figures Richard Austen Butler Pushed through reforms to prostitution in Street Offices Act, and then the Commonwealth Immigration Act 1962 in post at Home Office Chancellors Peter Thorneycroft Early proposals of monetarism rejected by Macmillan, resigns alongside Powell Derick Heathcote-Amory 'Giveaway budget' 1959 reduces income tax down to 40p - election winning budget Selwyn Lloyd Disastrously unpopular budget in 1962 - tax on sweets and ice cream Reggie Maudling Keynesian expansionist - April 1963 budget saw £260 million tax cuts Economy Continuation of Balance of Payments deficit 'Britain never had it so good' July 1957 Macmillan remains staunchly fiscal and Keynesian throughout his office Overall - Wages increased, home ownership increased by 44% and increased consumption of white goods, yet share of trade fell to only 15%. Macmillan attempts to join EEC but De Gaulle continuously vetoes application Labour critically divided between Bevanites and Gaitskellites over CND and Clause 4
2.1.2 Profumo Affair 1962
2.1.3 'Night of the Long Knives' July 1962 - huge cabinet reshuffle but damages Macmillans image of calm
2.2 Harold Wilson
2.2.1 General Election 1964 Labour - 317 Conservative - 304 Key Figures Roy Jenkins Notable social reforms as Home Secretary. Prominent Labour politician for next 20 years Barbara Castle 'In Place of Strife' paper developed in 1968 to crack down on Trade Union dominance. Rejected by left wing party members. Notable Social Reforms Capital Punishment abolished in 1969 Sexual Offences Bill 1967 legalises homosexuality Race Relations Act 1966 establishes Race Relations Board to investigate complaints of discrimination Jennie Lee launches the Open University in 1971 Theatres Act 1968 abolishes stage censorship Economy Despite a large BoP deficit, Wilson consistently rejects devaluation and keeps the £ at $2.80 October 1967 saw worst monthly trade deficit in British history Wilson forced to devalue £ to $2.40 Trade surplus recorded in 1969 Second attempt to join Europe again rebuffed by De Gaulle
2.2.2 Wins re-election in 1966 with increased majority
3 Heath, Wilson and Callaghan 1970-1979
3.1 Ted Heath
3.1.1 General Election 1970 Labour - 288 Conservative - 330 Provisional IRA becomes active in Ulster - beginning of the 'Troubles' 'Bloody Sunday' 1972 - 26 civillians killed by British soldiers Miners Strikes 1971-72 Miners demand huge pay rises to combat inflation 'Flying pickets' under direction of Arthur Scargill force closure of power stations and depots. Government submit due to rapidly decreasing coal stocks and agree to miners' demands. Huge public image disaster for the Government Britain finally gains entry into the EEC in 1973 Arab-Israeli War causes price of oil to rocket. Britain must rely on domestic coal Government calls a 3 day working week in response to further strikes by miners. British output only fell by 5%
3.2 Harold Wilson (2nd Term) and Jim Callaghan
3.2.1 General Election 1974 Labour - 319 Conservative - 277 Parliament wide divisions over Europe - Wilson calls referendum in 1975 Small Yes majority retains membership NO - Tony Benn and Michael Foot YES - Roy Jenkins and Ted Heath Economy By 1975 inflation reaches 27%, house prices drop 16% Healey resorts to $3 billion loan from IMF - national humiliation for Britain Huge action by Unions demanding inflation-busting raises 1978-79 'Winter of Discontent' - disastrous strikes by rubbish men, grave diggers, lorry drivers and health service workers Callaghan - 'Crisis? What crisis?'
3.2.2 Wilson retires 1976 to be replaced by Callaghan
4 Thatcher 1979-1990
4.1 Margaret Thatcher
4.1.1 General Election 1979 Labour - 269 Conservative - 339 General Election 1983 Labour - 209 Conservative - 397 Miner's Strike 1984-85 Governments closure of uneconomic pits leads to forced strike action directed by Scargill Called strike in Spring 1984 - proved to be a critical mistake 'Battle of Orgreave' 1984 - public opinion seems to turn pro-government Government coal stocks outlast strikers. Strike called off March 1985 General Election 1987 Labour - 229 Conservative - 376 Poll Tax Everyone pays standard 'community charge' - old system based on property valuation scrapped Hugely unpopular with the public. Large scale rioting resulted. Disagreements and significant resignations from Nigel Lawson, Michael Hesaltine and most critically, Geoffrey Howe Labour in Opposition Michael Foot as leader 1979-83 Foot leads a revival of hard Leftism in the party followed by a rise of socialism across the North in local councils Right-leaning SDP lead by Roy Jenkins splits from the Labour Party SDP gains significant seats in 1983 election at the expense of Labour Neil Kinnock replaces Foot as leader after disastrous election defeat Northern Ireland Northern Ireland 'Troubles' runs through whole decade Bombing of Grand Hotel in 1984 Tory Party Conference Falklands War 1982 Thatcher wins conflict outright - huge election-winning boost in popularity Key Figures Geoffrey Howe Chancellor, and loyal Thatcherite Arthur Scargill National Union of Miners leader and Thatcher nemesis throughout the Miners Strikes of 1973-74 Economy Free-Market Economics Monetarist Policy - Control of money supply largely via interest rates Emphasis on 'small government' - little government intervention in the economy. A huge break from the consensus approach of Keynesian economics Large-scale Privatisation - Utilities (Gas/Water/Electricity) airlines, communications, motor companies (Jaguar/Rolls Royce) and coal industry Large number of public become shareholders Howe's first budget 1979 Income tax reduced, especially for the rich - 83% down to 60% Interest rate raised to 14% to lower inflation Resulted in huge reduction in inflation (down to 5% in 1983) but also Brixton riots and mass unemployment
4.1.2 Ousted by Party in 1990 who feared she was an electoral liability

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