1 The assassination of Alexander II in 1881 forced the tsarist
regime to become more conservative and anti-reformist.
Alexander II had been a reforming tsar, and his son, Alexander III,
thought this was the main reason for his murder.
1.1 As soon as Alexander III came into power he executed five
members of the People's Will, and there was a nationwide
crackdown involving the arrests of 100,000 suspected
1.1.1 In August 1881 this hard-lined approach was made a policy known as
the Safeguard System. It gave the tsar and his government
184.108.40.206 It had two levels;the lower Reinforced Safeguard and the Upper Extraordinary Safeguard
220.127.116.11.1 Suspects could be imprisoned for three months without trial.
18.104.22.168.1.1 Anything critical of the regime could be closed down or fined.
22.214.171.124.1.2 Under the extraordinary safeguard the Zemstva or the Duma could e closed.
126.96.36.199.2 The tsar also established 'land captains' who went
to local government to ensure they were obeying
orders. This was a clear return to an oppressive,
188.8.131.52.2.1 Tsar Alexander III turned Russia into a police state.
2.1 Russia was made of many different nationalities, with
Russians themselves making up 44% of the population.
Alexander III accelerated this in an attempt to unify the
2.1.1 In 1885 Russian was made the official language of the Empire.
184.108.40.206 In Finland, Poland and the Baltic States there was
much resistence. In Poland 100,000 Russian
soldiers had to be permanently stationed there.