2 Germany offered
peace treaty but
refused so Sailors in
Northern Germany took
2.1 This triggered revolts by socialists.
3 1918 Kaiser abdicated his throne
from Germany to the Netherlands.
4 Socialist, Friedrich Ebert became leader of the
Rebublic of Germany. He signed an Armistice
meaning the war was over.
4.1 Ebert said armistice would give the German
people freedom of speech, freedom of
worship and better living conditions.
5 People said that Ebert had "stabbed
Germany in the back" and caused the defeat
in the war.
Germany needed a
Russia's in 1917.
7 January 1919 free elections for the first time in German
history and Ebert became President of the Weimar
7.1 It was called the 'Weimar Republic
because the new government met in the
small town of Weimar.
8 Left wing group
Liebknect and Rosa
8.1 Against Ebert's democratic Germany, wanted a
Germany ruled by workers' councils or soviets.
8.2 1919 launched bid for power.
Freikorps and army made. Ebert
made agreement with Freikorps to
put down rebellion.
8.2.1 Bitter fight between
Spartacists and Freikorps.
won. Both leaders killed.
9 February 1919 Kurt Eisner (Ebert's
ally) was murdered by political
9.1 Bavarian communists declared a
Soviet republic in Bavaria.
9.1.1 May 1919, Freikorps killed 600
communists under Ebert's
10 1920, more communist
agitation in the Ruhr industrial
10.1 Freikorps clashed with
10.2 Ebert's actions caused bitterness
between Communists and
Socialists. But he gained approval
10.2.1 Ebert and many Germans
feared going the same way
10.2.1.1 Despite this
strong throughout the
11 May 1919- Terms of Treaty of Versailles
11.1 Germany lost: -10% of its land
- all of its overseas colonies -
12.5% of its population - 16%
of its coal and 48% of its iron
11.2 In addition: -its army was
reduced to 100,000; it was not
allowed to have an air force;
its navy was reduced -
Germany had to accept blame
for starting the war and was
forced to pay reperations.
12 Germans were appalled at the
Treaty of Versailles terms. Why
were they punished for their
12.1 Anger turned on Ebert and
he was blamed for the
12.2 Ebert was reluctant
on signing the
Treaty but knew that
Germany could not
go back to war.
13 Ebert faced violent
opposition from the
people in the
14 March 1920, Dr Wolfgang Kapp led
5,000 Freikorps into Berlin in a
rebellion- Kapp Putsch.
14.1 Army refused to fire on Freikorps, Ebert was
doomed but the German people declared a
strike which meant no transport, power or
14.1.1 Kapp left the country and was
hunted down and died awaiting
trial. The rest of the rebels went
15 1922 Ebert's foreign
15.1 November 1923 Hitler led an attempted rebellion in Munich-
Munich Putsch. Hitler and murderers were arrested but Hitler got
off lightly because it was the same judge that tried him two years
earlier for disorder.
16 The Treaty of Versailles
destabilised Germany politically
but was blamed for economic
17 April 1921
reparations bill for the
treaty was announced.
6,600 million pounds
had to be paid in
17.1 2% of Germany's
protested it was a
strain on the
was struggling to
rebuild after the
war, this was
18 1921 50 million pounds was
paid but nothing in 1922.
19 January 1923 French and Belgian troops
entered the Ruhr (under the Treaty of
Versailles) and began to help themselves
to what was owed to them.
19.1 Government ordered German
workers to carry out passive
resistance (go on strike)- there
would be nothing for France to
19.1.2 The halt in industrial
production in Germany's
most important region
caused the collapse of the