1865- 1914 'A Woman's Place'


A-Levels History Mind Map on 1865- 1914 'A Woman's Place', created by ldldooley on 04/28/2013.
Mind Map by ldldooley, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by ldldooley almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

1865- 1914 'A Woman's Place'
  1. Women in 1865
    1. The pursuit of women's rights was already underway, mainly from middle class educated women.
      1. Often active in other social reform like 'women and children in the workplace' and campaigning against alcohol.
      2. The majority of married women found the home and family life satisfying enough.
        1. THE CIVIL WAR
          1. Work outside the home, particularly in agriculture.
            1. Nursing the wounded, but this was seen as an extension of the women's domestic role.
              1. Small admissions into medical colleges, but strong limits on how many women, due to pressure from male physicians.
              2. Growth in industry - meant some unmarried women could work in factories, but once they were married they were expected to give this up.
                1. Women settling in the Great Plains were lonely, died during childbirth and had an abundance of duties.
              3. The Fifteenth Amendment 1870
                1. Campaigners were angry that this only covered race and not gender.
                2. Women and Work 1865 -1914
                  1. Most unmarried women still saw marriage and the domestic life as the desirable goal, but did marry later in life.
                    1. 1870: 13% unmarried women work 1900: Three times as many women workers.
                      1. Worked in textiles, as teachers, librarians, on telephones etc. Yet managerial jobs were for the more 'permanent' men.
                        1. Poor immigrant women took the lesser jobs as white women were promoted. Worked long hours and suffered to earn money.
                          1. Many working class women worked in practically sweat-shops where entrepreneurs suggested home workers to live.
                            1. Government still had laissez-faire mindset towards business. = No working rights.
                            2. Domestic Changes towards 1900
                              1. The urban middle class meant that women now had indoor plumbing, central heating, refridgerators, washing machines, laundries.
                                1. Domestic life became easier, not collecting wood, carrying waste, difficult cooking etc.
                                2. The birth rate had dropped by 1900, suggesting some birth control. This meant women could plan families and eased the burden of children.
                                  1. Life became easier and women could spend more time with their family and support their children's education.
                                  2. Education for women by 1900
                                    1. 1900: 1/2 of high school graduates were female. But many saw a good education as preparation for married life.
                                      1. The rise in divorce rate by 1900: This meant that women were becoming more independent as they now could potentially achieve careers like teaching.
                                        1. Breaking away from the 'separate spheres' mindset.
                                      2. Activists, Reformers and Campaigners
                                        1. Jane Addams established the Hull House in Chicago in 1889 to support immigrant families..
                                          1. She urged politicians to address many social issues like the slum housing.
                                          2. Some supported temperance (Drinking to be only in moderation) and others sought total prohibition.
                                            1. Women's Crusade of 1873: First mass movement of women demanding the ban on the sale of alcohol.
                                              1. Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) (1874)
                                                1. Founded by Anthony and Stanton to partly promote women's suffrage but also to combat excessive drinking. 1900: 7,000 branches in 52 states.
                                              2. The National Consumers League (NCL) (1899)
                                                1. Worked to secure fair working rights for women and kids. Awarded the NCL label if companies met their standards.
                                                2. National Association of Colored Women (NACW) (1896)
                                                  1. Educated black women who fought for women's rights but also racial rights. 1918: 300,000 members.
                                                  2. The Campaign for the vote
                                                    1. Leading feminists like Mott, Stanton, Anthony and Stone fought for the vote. Also educated middle class, white women.
                                                      1. National American Women's Suffrage Association (NAWSA) (1890)
                                                        1. NWSA and AWSA merged combining two groups with different approaches to achieving the vote.
                                                          1. By 1915 only had 100,000 members. 1/2 of what the temperance and prohibition movement had.
                                                            1. Catt took over as leader in 1900 and she organised moderate campaigns like lobbying politicians, leaflets and meetings.
                                                              1. 1913, Alice Paul created the breakaway group of Congressional Union for Women's Suffrage.
                                                                1. These were more militant organising mass demonstrations, picketing the white house and hunger strikes.
                                                                2. Following women's aid in WW1, President Wilson called for the Ninteenth Amendment that passed in 1920 giving women the vote.
                                                                  1. Still mostly effective for white women...
                                                                3. The extent that women wanted the vote varied. Many were happy to live in 'separate spheres' and agreed with their husbands political views.
                                                                  1. A wholly divided campaign, women sought different goals in life.
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