Theories of Second Language Acquisition

Kerri Green
Mind Map by Kerri Green, updated more than 1 year ago
Kerri Green
Created by Kerri Green almost 4 years ago


This mind map is quick run-down of a few theories about how language is acquired.

Resource summary

Theories of Second Language Acquisition
1 Stephen Krashen
1.1 Language is acquired in one way: when we understand the message. And we all acquire language in the same way.
1.1.1 Classroom Application of the Innatist theory Comprehensible Input: Students have to understand the content. Total Physical Response method is a good way to ensure this. Because of the monitor hyphethsis, teachers should help students to internalize rules. This helps them to self-edit themselves. Theory states that ELLs acquire language in a predictable order. Teachers should avoid strict grammar activities and instead teach with linguistically rich activities.
2 Noam Chomsky
2.1 Grammar is universal. the language may be different, but all languages have the same characteristics, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.
2.1.1 Classroom Application Provide meanginful, relatable material. And don''t be so strict. And don't focus mainly on grammar rules or memorization.
2.2 Proposed the language acquisition device, a hypothetical module that is supposed to account for how easy a child learns how to speak a language.
2.2.1 Innatist Theory: children do not need to be taught language. They hear people speaking it naturally, then they piece that together for competence. Humans have an innate ability to understand and produce sentences they have never heard before. Classroom Application
3 Skinner
3.1 Behaviorist Theory: children learn by operant conditioning. They act out a behavior and that behavior is then either punished or rewarded. The behavior, as a result, is either continued or discontinued by the child.
3.1.1 Classroom Application Audiolingual Method: Oral pratice. A student practices speaking aloud and is either rewarded for speaking the language accurately, or the student is corrected. Direct Teaching/ Mastery Learning: a student is taught the rules, facts, and sequences of the language and remembers them for their use language acquisition Total Physical Response:Oral command is then modeled. For example, the teacher will say "Stand" and then they will stand.
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