Chapter 2 Section 3

Talea Wiseman
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Talea Wiseman
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nothes about the Tonkawas, Apaches, Comanches

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Chapter 2 Section 3
  1. The Tonkawas
    1. gathered plants such as roots,seeds,fruit,acorns and pecans
      1. lived in tipis made of buffalo hides
        1. shared some land with the Karankawas
          1. used to live on the Edwards Plateau
            1. hunted buffalo,rabbits,skunks,rats,rattlesnakes and land turtles
              1. were friendly people
                1. pushed away from the Edwards Plateau due to the Apaches and Comanches in the 1600's & 1700's
                  1. became hunters and gatherers
                    1. groups of independent bands
                      1. each band had its own territory
                        1. chose war cheifs to lead them
                        2. The Apaches
                          1. comanches pushed the Lipians out of their area
                            1. there were 6 tribes; 2 were named the Lipans and the Mescaleros
                              1. the buffalo hides also covered their tipis
                                1. Mescaleros were hunters/gatherers, named for the mescal cactus on which they depended for much of their food and drink; did not grow crops
                                  1. women planted and harvested crops of corn,beans,pumpkins and watermelon
                                    1. "apache" comes from the Zuni word 'apuchu', which means enemy
                                      1. fierce fighters
                                        1. came from Canada in A.D. 1000
                                          1. Lipians wore clothes made of deerskin
                                            1. they wrapped themselves in buffalo robes during the winter
                                              1. each band has a cheif
                                                1. Lipians hunted buffalo and other and other animals and sometimes farmed
                                                  1. lipians were among the first Indians to ride horses
                                                    1. bands came together in time of war or for religious or social ceremonies
                                                      1. the Lipians appeared in the Texas Panhandle in 1500's, lived as seperate bands
                                                      2. The Comanches
                                                        1. made meat into pemmican
                                                          1. each band had a chief with limited power; all the adults in the band were members of the council
                                                            1. lived in tipis
                                                              1. decorated their bodies and made most of their clothes from buffalo hides
                                                                1. their life depended on the buffalo- it provided clothing, shelter and most food
                                                                  1. in small groups hunted buffalo year round
                                                                    1. women had short hair; men had long hair with braids
                                                                      1. Lipians and the Comanches cooperated with each other at first, but then had a conflict about hunting grounds
                                                                        1. all band members had to agree with the decisions or leave
                                                                          1. first appeared in Northern Mexico and the Texas Panhandle in the early 1700's
                                                                            1. on the hunt, butchered animals where they fell
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