1.2 He has to solve the following problem:
1.2.1 1. Kant claims that human beings are rational,
autonomous, moral decision makers.
1.2.2 2. Morality is a matter of doing one's moral duty.
1.2.3 3. Kant rejects the idea that God's will or commands are the basis of morality;
Reason is the basis of morality
1.2.4 4. How does God fit into Kant's system?
2 The actual moral
argument of Kant
2.1 Moral action is about one's duty
2.2 The highest good must be achievable, otherwise moral
goodness is pointless
2.2.1 what could make the highest good achievable?
220.127.116.11.1 We should postulate the existence of God
2.3 The reason to do one's duty is
to achieve the Summum Bonum
3 Kant and Morality
3.1 Moral duty is something you should do
3.2 the Summum Bonum is the achievement of
moral goodness and happiness together
3.3 Through reason we can work out what is the right thing to do
because the right thing to do has to be applicable universally
4 Weaknesses of Kant's Argument
4.1 Is Kant's argument
4.2 Is the Summum
4.2.1 Just because you ought to aim at
achieving the Summum Bonum, it
does not mean that the highest
good has to be achievable.
4.2.2 Kant's argument suggests that there is a choice between:
18.104.22.168 the SB being unachievable in reality and
therefore moral behaviour is meaningless
22.214.171.124 The SB being achievable in
reality and therefore moral
behaviour is meaningful and
4.4 Kant + happiness
4.5 Kant + moral
4.6 Does postulating the existence of
God help people to be moral?
4.6.1 No, we are autonomous,
rational decision makers
5 Freud's model
of the Mind
5.1 the id
5.1.1 part of the mind in which
human instincts are based
126.96.36.199 e.g. desire and appetite
5.2 The superego
5.2.1 Part of the ego
with which humans
reason and make
5.3 The ego
5.3.1 Part of the mind which
is shaped by 'external
188.8.131.52 e.g. traumas, bereavements,
education + upbringing
6 Religion and
6.1.1 Religion is an
(according to Freud)
184.108.40.206 Neurosis =
and inhibit one's life.
220.127.116.11 If true, refutes Kant's
6.1.2 Religion provides a way
for people to satisy their
desires; like the world
being ordered + life
6.1.3 the Summum Bonum being achievable
is a very persuasive human desire, but
this in no way makes it or God real.
6.2.1 Freud said - moral values are the
results of our experiences through
upbringing and their interaction with
the subconscious .
18.104.22.168 Parents preserve their
influence in their kids by
the education + values
they give them.
6.2.2 considerable evidence to
support the point that
experience and upbringing
shape our moral ideas.
6.2.3 Kant claims that morality is objective and
can be discovered through reason
22.214.171.124 Freud would argue against this,
saying morality is the product of
society + upbringing - there is
nothing to discover.
126.96.36.199.1 If Feud is right, Kant's
argument for God's
existence as a postulate of
pure reason fails.
7.1 You can’t have a
without a commander.
7.1.1 Owen argues this way and says
that objective morality is either
brute fact of experience – which he
considers unconvincing – or it
requires explanation – and God is
the sufficient and necessary
8 Cardinal Newman
8.1 "We feel responsibility, are
ashamed are frightened at
transgressing the voice of
conscience, this implies that
there is one to whom we are
8.2 Our sense of guilt,
moral responsibility &
obligation is a sense