The Philippines- Disaster Hotspot

Jodie Goodacre
Mind Map by Jodie Goodacre, updated more than 1 year ago
Jodie Goodacre
Created by Jodie Goodacre about 7 years ago
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A-Levels Geography (World at risk) Mind Map on The Philippines- Disaster Hotspot, created by Jodie Goodacre on 05/01/2013.
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Resource summary

The Philippines- Disaster Hotspot
1 Southeast Asia
2 Above the equator in the tropic of cancer
3 Made up of 7,107 islands
4 Latitudes between 5 and 20 degrees North of the equator
5 Lies in a belt of tropical cyclones
6 Lies across the Eurasian plate and the Philippines plate boundaries
7 Destructive plate boundary
8 Oceanic plate subducted
9 In the Pacific ocean
10 North of Indonesia
11 South of Taiwan
12 East of Vietnam
13 Within the 'Ring of Fire'
14 Disaster hotspot
15 Prone to Earthquakes and Typhoons
16 73rd largest independent nation
17 Over 186,000 sq. miles in size
18 Topography of the islands is mostly mountainous with narrow to large coastal lowlands
19 Divided into three main geographic areas : Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao
20 Highest mountain is Mount Apo at 2,954 meters in height
21 The Philippines deepest point is the Philippine Deep at 10,057 meters below sea level
22 Approx, 1,000 of its islands are populated and less than 50% of these are larger than 2.5 square kilometres
23 Eleven islands make up 94% of the Philippine landmass
24 Has one of the longest coastlines of any nation in the world
25 Most Filipinos live on or near the coast
26 Earthquakes
26.1 Earthquakes are very violent
26.2 May go up to 9.0 on the Richter scale
26.3 The Philippines plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate causing vast amounts of friction
26.4 100% of the Philippines is at risk from Earthquakes
26.5 Moro Gulf Earthquake
26.5.1 August 17th 1976 at 00:11 local time
26.5.2 Magnitude 8.0
26.5.3 Tsunami warning was given
26.5.4 Major aftershock of 6.8
26.5.5 Many smaller aftershocks
26.5.6 Death toll of a recorded 5,000 but possibly up to 8,000
26.5.7 A massive tsunami devastated 700km of coastline
26.5.8 10,000 injured
26.5.9 90,000 homeless
26.5.10 Waves from tsunami reached 4-5 meters
26.5.11 The tsunami was responsible for 85% of deaths, 65% of injuries and 95% of those missing
27 Volcanoes
27.1 Explosive and destructive
27.2 As the Philippines plate sinks below the Eurasian plate it melts due to the direction in the subduction zone.
27.2.1 The crust becomes molten called magma which is then forced to the surface
27.3 Composite volcano
27.4 At destructive plate boundaries the lava is viscous and it cannot flow very far from the volcanoes vent
27.5 Steep sided
27.6 The volcanoes erupt violently because the rapidly hardened rock blocks the vents and allows pressure to build up under the blocked vent
27.7 Volcanoes can lead to dangerous lahars
27.8 Mount Pinatubo
27.8.1 June 1991
27.8.2 Biggest eruption globally in over 50 years
27.8.3 Had been dormant for 500 years
27.8.4 First sign wwas 16th July 1990 when a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck 60 miles northeast of Mount Pinatubo
27.8.5 In March and April 1991, magma started rising towards the surface from more than 20 miles beneath Pinatubo.
27.8.6 Many thousands of tons of noxious suphur dioxide gas were emitted
27.8.7 A 10km exclusion zone was set up around Pinatubo by government advisers who eventually extended this to 30km
27.8.8 Two weeks before the eruption the government produced a video outlining the risks of pyroclastic flows and lahars
27.8.9 On June 7th 1991, the first magma reached the surface butmerely oozed from the vent
27.8.10 June 12th was the first big explosion
27.8.11 June 15th a huge eruption took place ejecting more than 5 cu. kms. of volcanic material
27.8.12 Ash clous rose 22 miles into the air
27.8.13 Volcanic deposits filled deep valleys as much as 660ft. thick
27.8.14 The eruption removed so much magma and rock that the summit collapsed to form a large volcanic depression or caldera 1.6 miles across
27.8.15 Caused global temperatures to drop about 0.5 degrees temporarily
27.8.16 20,000 people displaced
27.8.17 200,000 people evacuated
27.8.18 847 people died
27.8.19 4,300 people died and were injured
27.8.20 Economic losses were US$710 million
28 Typhoons
28.1 Lies within a major typhoon belt
28.2 Susceptible to tropical storms
28.3 Affected by 15 typhoons and struck by around 5 or 6 a year
28.4 Begins over warm water (26 degrees)
28.5 Between latitudes of 5 and 20 degrees
28.6 70m deep minimum
28.7 Coriolis effect needed
28.8 Dissipates as it moves over land
28.9 Can lead to landslides
28.10 High winds and rainfall
28.11 Typhoon Bopha (Pablo)
28.11.1 Strongest tropical cyclone to ever hit the southern Philippine island
28.11.2 Category 5 super typhoon
28.11.3 Winds of 160mph
28.11.4 Originated unusually close to the equator
28.11.5 December 4th 2012
28.11.6 Affected more than 213,000 people
28.11.7 More than 179,000 people were in evacuation centers
28.11.8 The death toll reached 1,067
28.11.9 850 people still missing in February
28.11.10 Floods and landslides caused major damage
29 Landslides
29.1 Guinsaugon
29.1.1 Central Philippines
29.1.2 10:30am on 17th February 2006
29.1.3 Cliff face along the Philippine fault collapsed
29.1.4 Up to 10 smaller landslides had occurred in previous weeks
29.1.5 Buried a local elementary school killing 245 students and 6 teachers - only 1 child and 1 adult were saved
29.1.6 Killing around 1,150 people
29.1.7 Engulfed the village covering 3km sq.
29.1.8 A 2.6 magnitude earthquake may have triggered the slide
29.1.9 Unseasonable torrential rain linked to La Nina
29.1.10 Relief efforts hampered by blocked roads and lack of heavy equipment
30 Tsunamis
30.1 The Northern and Eastern coasts face the Pacific Ocean - the most tsunami prone in the world
30.2 The great size of the Pacific ocean and the destructive earthquakes combine to produce deadly tsunamis
30.3 In less than a day, these tsunamis can travel from one side of the Pacific to the other
30.4 People living near areas where large earthquakes occur may find that the tsunami waves will each their shores within minutes of an earthquake
31 Lower middle income country with a GDP of $5,000 per capita
32 18th fasted development rate with an average 18.5% annual increase
33 HDI of 0.75
34 Uncontrolled deforestation
35 Destroying natural protection along the coasts
36 Population has more than tripled since 1948 from 19 million to 92 million in 2009
37 Population growth stood at 2,02% from 1995 to 2000
38 Rapidly increasing young population
38.1 15-64 year olds make up 59% of the population
38.2 Under 15s make up 37% of the population
38.3 Over 65s make up only 4% of the populaiton
39 Median age is 22.2 based on 2010 statistics
40 High population density - 240 people per km sq. on average
40.1 In Megacity Manila this number is 2,000 people per km sq.
41 On a scale of 1-7 - with 1 being extremely underdeveloped and 7 extensive and efficient by global standards - roads in the Philippines scored a low 3
42 By 2002, 89.1% of the population had access to electricity and then 93.7% in 2005
43 Poor roads and infrastructure
44 41.3% mobile users in 2005
45 4/100 people use landline phones - 2005
46 Access to quality water sources is relatively high at 85% in 2002
47 Access to improved sanitation facilities, was at 73% in 2002
48 The number of people living on less than $1 a day remained constant over the 1981-1995 period
49 Disaster preparedness in schools - educating schools
50 Early warning, forecasting and monitoring systems have been improved
51 El Nino Drought
51.1 February 2010
51.2 2.5 million metric tonnes of rice and corn were lost
51.3 800,000 hectares of fields effected
51.4 Economic losses of US$33 million
51.5 Government provided 6,000 water pumps
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