1.1 an ancient civilization
in eastern North Africa, concentrated along
the lower reaches of the Nile River in what
is now the modern nation of Egypt.
1.2 polytheistic. Astronomy, medicine,
geography, agriculture, art and laws all
blended into or part of religion so everyone
needed to believe in gods.
1.3 Gods in Ancient Egypt were not only formless
entities they were also the forces of nature, the
elements, and the characteristics of certain powers.
1.4 There were hundreds of
different gods. Most gods
had the head of an animal
and the body of a human
2.1 The ancient Egyptian people were grouped
in a hierarchical system with the Pharaoh at
the top and farmers and slaves at the bottom.
The groups of people nearest the top of
society were the richest and most powerful.
2.1.1 The Pharaoh was believed to be a God
on earth and had the most power. He was
responsible for making laws and keeping
order, ensuring that Egypt was not
attacked or invaded by enemies and for
keeping the Gods happy so that the Nile
flooded and there was a good harvest.
188.8.131.52 The Vizier was the Pharaoh's chief advisor and was
sometimes also the High Priest. He was responsible for
overseeing administration and all official documents had
to have his seal of approval. He was also responsible for
the supply of food, settling disputes between nobles and
the running and protection of the Pharaoh's household.
184.108.40.206.1 Nobles ruled the
regions of Egypt
(Nomes). They were
making local laws
and keeping order in
220.127.116.11.1.1 Priests were
responsible for keeping
the Gods happy. They
did not preach to
people but spent their
time performing rituals
and ceremonies to the
God of their temple.
18.104.22.168.1.1.1 Scribes were the only people who could read and
write and were responsible for keeping records.
The ancient Egyptians recorded things such as
how much food was produced at harvest time, how
many soldiers were in the army, numbers of
workers and the number of gifts given to the Gods.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Farmers worked the land of the Pharaoh
and nobles and were given housing, food
and clothes in return. Some farmers
rented land from nobles and had to pay a
percentage of their crop as their rent.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1 There were no slave markets or auctions in
Ancient Egypt. Slaves were usually prisoners
captured in war. Slaves could be found in the
households of the Pharaoh and nobles, working
in mines and quarries and also in temples.
3.1 The Nile River
220.127.116.11 The Egyptians even built their calendar
around the Nile River. They divided their
calendar up into three seasons. Akhet, or
inundation, was considered the first season
and was the time of the flooding of the Nile.
The other two seasons were Peret, the
growing season, and Shemu, the harvest
3.1.2 The Nile River also provided a lot of
building materials for the Ancient
Egyptians. They used the mud from the
riverbanks to make sundried bricks. These
bricks were used in building homes, walls,
and other buildings.
3.1.3 The most important thing the Nile provided to the
Ancient Egyptians was fertile land. Most of Egypt
is desert, but along the Nile River the soil is rich
and good for growing crops. The three most
important crops were wheat, flax, and papyrus.
3.1.4 The Nile River flows north through Egypt
and into the Mediterranean Sea. Ancient
Egypt was divided into two regions,
Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. This
looks a bit confusing on a map because
Upper Egypt is to the south and Lower
Egypt is to the north. This is because
the names come from the flow of the Nile
4 Power of the Pharaoh
4.1 The most powerful person in ancient
Egypt was the pharaoh. The pharaoh
was the political and religious leader
of the Egyptian people.
4.2 The pharaoh was the ruler of Upper
and Lower Egypt. He owned all of the
land, made laws, collected taxes, and
defended Egypt against foreigners.
4.3 As 'High Priest of Every Temple',
the pharaoh represented the gods
on Earth. He performed rituals and
built temples to honour the gods.
4.4 Many Pharaohs went to war
when their land was threatened
or when they wanted to control
foreign lands. If the Pharaoh won
the battle, the conquered people
had to recognise the Egyptian
Pharaoh as their ruler and offer
him the finest and most
valuable goods from their land.
5.1 Ancient Egyptians produced excess crops
and mined valuable stones and metals that
they were able to trade with foreign countries.
5.2 Illustrations on tomb walls describe expeditions sent by
the pharaoh to Nubia to the south, and Punt to the
southeast on the Red Sea. These expeditions were sent
to barter Egyptian items for valuable foreign goods.
5.3 Egypt also set up trading relationships with Syria for cedar
wood since their natural trees did not produce good lumber.
6.1 Belief of life after
death was that
they would make a
journey to another
world where they
would lead new
6.1.1 Egyptians also believed that being
mummified was the only way to have
an afterlife. Only if the corpse had
been properly embalmed and
entombed, could the dead live again.
18.104.22.168 pets also
buried with the
owner for a
6.2 Wealthy Egyptians buried with
larger quantities of luxury items,
but all burials included goods for
the deceased. After burial, living
relatives expected to occasionally
bring food to the tomb and recite
prayers on behalf of the deceased.
6.3 Death was not considered final but simply a
temporary interruption of life, and they believed
that eternal life could be ensured by being
pious to the gods and by preserving their
physical bodies by mummification.