Crimean War

emmakidd
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A Levels History Mind Map on Crimean War, created by emmakidd on 03/23/2014.

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emmakidd
Created by emmakidd over 5 years ago
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Crimean War
1 Causes
1.1 Ottoman Empire was falling apart - Turkish govt had authority over many territories - if it fell apart then that could endanger the peace
1.1.1 Britain & Russia had many conversations about this in 1853
1.1.1.1 Seymour (British ambassador to Russia) suggested a "gentleman's agreement"
1.1.1.1.1 Russia thought they had full sympathy of Britain, however, the cabinet was divided
1.1.1.1.1.1 Some were suspicious of Tsar Nicolas
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Became more suspicious when there were Russian troops concentrated on the Turkey/Russia border
1.2 France was determined to challenge authority that other countries had over it
1.2.1 1815 peace settlement - contained France
1.2.2 Emperor Napoleon III keen to challenge Russia as it was associated with autocracy and controlling France
1.3 Holy Places dispute
1.3.1 French Catholic Monks had right to look after Holy Places in Palestine in 1740
1.3.1.1 Greek Orthodox Monks, who were backed by Russia, were taking control of these Holy Places
1.3.1.1.1 French demanded the Ottoman Sultan give back full rights of Catholic monks in 1850
1.3.1.1.1.1 Large Dispute until 1852, when the Sultan gave the keys to the Catholic priests
1.3.1.1.1.1.1 Russians outraged and decide to take action
1.4 Menshikov Mission (Feb 1853)
1.4.1 Tsar sent a party to Constantinople to demand that:
1.4.1.1 The keys to Holy Places be given back to Orthodox monks
1.4.1.2 Tsar is recognised as protector of all Christians in the Ottoman Empire
1.4.1.2.1 Christians 1/3 of population - if this happened, Tsar would have great control over Russia
1.4.1.3 British ambassador to Turkey encouraged Sultan to say no
1.4.2 Anger/nationalism in Constantinople
1.4.3 May 1853 - Russia said unless these were fulfilled, troops would occupy Moldavia and Wallachia - which were under Turkish control
1.4.4 British/French intervention
1.4.4.1 Ottoman ambassador (De Redcliffe) and Palmerston told Britain to stay strong against Russia - Palmerston said that Russia would back down
1.4.4.1.1 Aberdeen (PM) cautious
1.4.4.1.2 Russophobia in British public - Liberals and Radicals in particular wanted to challenge Russian autocracy
1.4.4.1.3 June 1853 - British ships sent just outside Turkey - gesture of support - soon joined by French fleet.
1.4.4.1.3.1 British forced to co-operate with France despite the fact Aberdeen did not trust Napoleon
1.4.4.1.3.2 July - Tsar ordered troops into Moldavia & Wallachia. Said they would withdraw when demands had been met.
1.4.4.1.3.2.1 Turkey confident because of Britain and France; did not give way
1.4.4.2 The Vienna Note
1.4.4.2.1 Austria organised a conference and said that the Sultan should make some concessions
1.4.4.2.1.1 The Sultan consult Russia and France about treatment of Ottoman Christians - in return, Russia leaves Moldavia and Wallachia
1.4.4.2.1.1.1 Tsar accepted this
1.4.4.2.1.1.1.1 However, Sultan and De Redcliffe insisted on some amendments
1.4.4.2.1.1.1.1.1 Tsar rejected these
1.5 Responsibility

Attachments:

2 The Army
2.1 Backwards
2.1.1 British success at Waterloo meant they were arrogant and not willing to change
2.1.1.1 Wellington was still extremely influencial
2.1.1.1.1 He believed that change was not necessary within the army - what had worked at Waterloo would work in Crimea
2.1.1.1.1.1 Calls for reform - no more than calls for further economics
2.1.1.1.2 Commander in chief 1827-8 and 1842-52
2.2 Government
2.2.1 Govt was keen to cut back on expenditure, including in the army
2.2.1.1 Retrenchment
2.3 Raglan
2.3.1 Commander of the British expeditionary force
2.3.1.1 Used to be Wellington's military secretary
2.3.1.2 Had never commanded a force before
3 The War
3.1 Start
3.1.1 Russia declared war on Russia in Oct 1853
4 The End of the War
5 Reforms/Impact
5.1 Political
5.2 Financial
5.3 Social
5.4 Military

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