Chronic Bronchitis

Farah  Mansour
Mind Map by Farah Mansour, updated more than 1 year ago
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chronic bronchitis pathological profile
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Chronic Bronchitis
1 Causes
1.1 Smoking Cigarettes
1.2 Cystic fibrosis
2 Pathogenesis
2.1 Hypersecretion of mucus occurs in bronchus and subdivisions
2.2 Obstruction to airflow occurs from mucus plugs located in segmental bronchi and proximal bronchioles
2.3 Irreversible fibrosis may occur in chronically inflamed segemntal bronchi and bronchioles
2.4 Changes in Bronchi :
2.4.1 Hypersecretion of submucosal mucus-secreting glands in trachea & brochi >> primarly responsible for sputum overproduction
2.4.2 Acute inflammation ( neutrophils ) often superimposed on chronic inflammation
2.4.3 Loss of ciliated epithelium & presence of squamous metaplasia
2.5 Changes in Bronchioles:
2.5.1 Mucus plugs in lumens >> block the exodus of CO2
2.5.2 Goblet cell metaplasia
2.5.3 Chronic inflammation & fibrosis narrowing the lumen
3 Clinical findings :
3.1 Productive cough
3.2 Dyspnea occurs late
3.3 Hypoxemia & respiratory acidosis occur early
3.4 Cyanosis of skin & mucous membranes
3.4.1 O2 saturation is decreased from hypoxemia
3.4.2 "Blue Bloaters"
3.5 Tend to be stocky or obese
3.6 Expiratory wheezing & sibilant rhonci
3.7 COR PULMONALE is commonly present
3.8 Chest radiograph
3.8.1 Large, horizontally oriented heart
3.8.2 Increased bronchial markings
3.9 Pulmonary Function tests and arterial blood gases
3.9.1 Less increase in TLC and RV than emphysema
3.9.2 Chronic respiratory acidosis
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