Medicine through time

THEGIANT64
Mind Map by THEGIANT64, updated more than 1 year ago
THEGIANT64
Created by THEGIANT64 about 6 years ago
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Histroy Mind Map on Medicine through time, created by THEGIANT64 on 04/01/2014.
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Medicine through time
1 Timeline
1.1 3000BC
1.1.1 Pre histroy Under standing is based on spirits and gods
1.1.1.1 no real medical care people die very young 30-35 for men and 15-25 for women due to child birth dangers
1.1.1.1.1 Most people suffered form Osteoarthritis(painful swelling of the joints)
1.1.1.1.1.1 Trephining is a popular form of surgery- designed to release the evil spirits from the sick person's body through dfilling a hole in their skull
1.2 2000BC
1.2.1 Egyptian Empire development of Papyrus, trade and a greater understanding of the body ( based on irrigation channels from the river nile)
1.2.1.1 They believed the body had 42 blood channels and that illness was caused by undigested food blocking these channels
1.3 1500-300BC
1.3.1 Greek empire medicine still based on religion( TEMPLE OF ASCLEPIUS)
1.3.1.1 By 200BC there was a temple in every town, Here patients would get better.but mainly through the standard of rest,relaxation and exercise(like a greek health spa)
1.4 450BC
1.4.1 Hippocrates- founder of the FOUR HUMOURS theory, this theory stated that there were four main elements in the body BLOOD, YELLOW BILE, BLACK BILE AND PHLEGM. Illness was caused by having too much of one of these humours inside of you. He also wrote the HIPPOCRATIC COLLECTION, more than 60 books detailing symptoms and treatments of many diseases
1.5 384-322BC
1.5.1 Aristotle- used ideas of other Greek philosophers and produced a clear statement and theory about cause and treatment of disease. He suggested that imbalance was cause and not a symptom of illness
1.6 400BC-500AD
1.6.1 Roman Empire-the Romans were renowned for excellent public health facilities. The Romans introduced AQUEDUCTS, PUBLIC BATHS,SEWERS,AND DRAINS, etc. In the city of Rome, water commissioners were appointed to ensure good supplies of clean water
1.7 162AD
1.7.1 Galen- continues the four humours theory but extends it to have the humours in opposition to each other. This meant that an illness could be treated in one of two ways, either removing the "excess" humour or by adding more to its opposite. Galen also proves the brain is important in the body(operation on the pig). Galen's books would become the foundation of medical treatment in Europe for the next 1500 years
1.8 DARK AGES
1.8.1 Britain and Europe return almost back to pre-historic times under SAXONS AND VIKINGS
1.9 860-925AD
1.9.1 AL-RAZI(Rhazes) wrote over 200 books and was the first to use opium for 'anesthesia'. He also highlighted the effect of psychological factors on a person's health
1.10 980-1037AD
1.10.1 IBN SINA (Avicenna)-wrote "The Canon"- a complete medical encyclopaedia that was used for hundreds of years after to teach European physicians
1.11 1100-1200AD
1.11.1 When Europeans went on crusades to the Holy Land in the 12th and 13th centuries, their doctors gained first-hand knowledge of Arab medicine, which was advanced by Western standards
1.12 1347-1348AD
1.12.1 BLACK DEATH-across Europe more than 25million people die. Two types of plague
1.12.1.1 Bubonic-50-75% chance of death. Carried by fleas on rats Death usually within 8 days
1.12.1.2 Pneumonic-airborne disease 90-95% chance of death within only 2-3 days
1.12.1.3 People had no idea how to stop the plague, People thought it was caused b various factors, i.e the Jews, the planets, the gods etc
1.13 1400AD
1.13.1 By 1400 there were over 500 hospitals in England organised through the christian Church
1.14 1455AD
1.14.1 The Printing press was invented. This allowed for the massive reproduction of books and writings without using the Church as a medium
1.15 1517
1.15.1 Protestantism- begins in Europe. This slowly decreases the power of the Catholic church over medicine
1.16 Timeline in order LEFT_RIGHT
1.17 1543AD
1.17.1 Andreus Vesalius-proved Galen wrong regarding the jawbone and that blood flows through the septum in the heart. He published "THE FABRIC OF THE BODY" in 1543. His work encouraged other to question Galen's theories
1.18 1570AD
1.18.1 Ambrosie Pare'- developed LIGATURES to stop bleeding during and after surgery. This reduced the risk of infection. He also developed an Ointment to use instead of cauterising wounds
1.19 1628AD
1.19.1 WILLIAM HARVEY-published his famous book"AN ANATOMICAL ACCOUNT OF THE MOTION OF THE HEART AND BLOOD" this proved that blood flows around the body, and is carried away from the heart by the arteries and is returned through the veins. He proved that the heart acts as a pump recirculating the blood and that blood does'nt "burn up"
1.20 1665AD
1.20.1 THE GREAT PLAGUE- little improvement since 1348- still have no idea what is causing it and still no understanding of how to control or prevent it. In London, almost 69,000 people died that year
1.21 1668AD
1.21.1 ANTONY VAN LEEUWENHOEK- creates a superior microscope that magnifies up to 200 times. This is a huge improvement on Robert Hooke's original microscope
1.22 1721AD
1.22.1 INOCULATION first used in Europe,brought over from Turkey by Lady Montague
1.23 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.24 1796AD
1.24.1 EDWARD JENNER-discovered vaccinations using COWPOX TO TREAT SMALLPOX. Jenner published his findings in 1798. The impact was slow and sporadic. In 1805 Napoleon had all hiss soldiers vaccinated. However vaccination was'nt made compulsory in Britian until 1852
1.25 1799AD
1.25.1 HUMPHREY DAVY- discovers the pain-killing attributes of NITROUS OXIDE(Laughing Gas). It would become the main anaesthetic used in Dentistry.Horace Wells would try and get the gas international recognition. He committed suicide the day before it got the recognition it deserved.
1.26 1830AD
1.26.1 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- this had a dramatic effect on public health, As more and more families moved into towns and cities, the standards of public health declined. Families often shared housing, and living and working conditions were poor. People worked 15hour days had very little money
1.27 1831AD
1.27.1 CHOLERA EPIDEMIC_people infected with cholera suffered muscle cramps,diarrhoea,dehydration and a fever, The patient would most likely be killed by dehydration, Cholera returned regularly throughout the century, with major outbreaks in 1848 and 1854.
1.28 1842AD
1.28.1 EDWIN CHADWICK- reports on the state of health of the people in cities, towns and villages to the poor Law Commission (fore-runner to the public health reforms). He highlights the differences in life-expectancy caused by living and working conditions. He proposes that simple changes could extend the lives of the working class by an average of 13 years
1.29 1845AD
1.29.1 HORACE WELLS uses nitrous oxide as an anaesthetic for the first time.
1.30 1846AD
1.30.1 First successful use of Ether as an anaesthetic in surgery by William Morton. The anaesthetic had some very severe drawbacks. In particular it irritated the lungs and was highly flammable
1.31 1847AD
1.31.1 JAMES SIMPSON DISCOVERS CHLOROFORM During an after dinner sampling session with friends, He struggles to get the medical world to accept the drug above Ether. Doctors were wary of how much to give to patients. Only 11 weeks after its first use by Simpson, a patient died under chloroform in Newcastle. The patient was only having an in-growing toenail removed(non-life threatening). It took the backing of QUEEN VICTORIA when she was given chloroform during childbirth in 1853 for chloroform and Simpson to gain worldwide publicity
1.31.2 IGNAZ SEMELWEISS orders his students to wash their hands before surgery(but only after they had been in the morgue)
1.31.3 FIRST PUBLIC HEALTH ACT in Britiain-it allowed ocal authorities to make improvements if they wanted to and if ratepayers gave them their support. It enabled local authorities to borrow oney to pay for the improvments. It was largely ineffective as it was'nt made compulsory for councils to enforce it. Their was an element of the "LAISSEZ_FAIRE" style of government
1.32 1854AD
1.32.1 CRIMEAN WAR- FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE and MARY SEACOLE contribute majorly to the improvements in Hospitals in Hospitals. Florence Nightingale wrote two books that would have a worldwide influence, (NOTES ON NURSING AND NOTES IN/ON HOSPITALS). she also set up Nursing schools
1.33 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.34 1854AD
1.34.1 JOHN SNOW proves the link between the cholera epidemic and the water pump in BROAD STREET, London. Unfortunately he was unable to convince the government to make any substantial reforms.
1.35 1857AD
1.35.1 QUEEN VICTORIA publicly advocates use of Chloroform after birth of her eighth child
1.36 1858AD
1.36.1 THE GREAT STINK the sumer of 1858 was very hot and as river levels fell, the horrid smells spread across London and into the Houses of Parliament. This led to JOSEPH BAZALGETTE designing and building London's sewer system.
1.37 1858AD
1.37.1 DOCTORS'' QUALIFICATIONS HAD TO BE REGULATED through the general Medical council
1.38 1861AD
1.38.1 1861 GERM THEORY developed by Louis Pasteur whilst he was working on a method to keep beer and wine fresh-this changed the whole understanding of how illnesses are caused
1.39 865AD
1.39.1 ELIZABETH GARRETT_ANDERSON-first female doctor in the UK
1.40 1865AD
1.40.1 OCTAVIA HILL begins buying slum houses and cleaning them up to provide better housing for workers. Her influence helped to persuade the government to pass the 1875 ARTISANS'DWELLING ACT, giving councils the power to knock down slums on health grounds
1.41 1867AD
1.41.1 JOSEPH LISTER begins using CARBOLIC SPRAY during surgery to fight infection. It reduces the casualty rate of his operations from 45.7% of deaths to just 15%. Initially he received alot of opposition as the spray was an irritant to the surgeons' skin. Based on Lister's work, Surgery progressed towards ASETIC SURGERY ( where there are no germs present during surgery) from 1887, all instrument were steam-sterilised
1.42 1875AD
1.42.1 SECOND PUBLIC HEALTH ACT-now made compulsory. Major requirement is that sewers must be moved away from housing and that houses must be a certain distance apart
1.43 1876AD
1.43.1 PUBLIC HEALTH IMPROVEMENTS- in the UK the government introduced new laws against the pollution of rivers, the sale of poor quality food and new building regulations were enforced
1.44 1880AD
1.44.1 JOSEPH LISTER uses sterilised catgut for internal stiches
1.45 1881AD
1.45.1 ROBERT KOCH discovers the bacteria that causes ANTHRAX. he establishes a new method of staining bacteria. Using Koch's methods the causes of many diseases were identified quickly; ( 1880- typhus) (1882-Tuberculosis) (1883-Colera) (1884-Tetanus) (1886-Pneumonia) (1887-Meningitis) (1894-Plague) (1898-Dysentery)
1.46 1889AD
1.46.1 WILLIAM HALSTEAD introduced the wearing of sterilised rubber gloves and surgical masks to prevent further infection in surgery
1.47 1895AD
1.47.1 X-rays Discovered by WILHELM RONTGEN, Though it is an important discovery, it is only WW1 and the treatment of soldiers that propels it into the medical spotlight
1.48 1895AD
1.48.1 MARIE CuRIE discovers radioactive elements radium and polonium. she will eventually win two nobel prizes for her work on X-Rays and on Radium
1.49 1901AD
1.49.1 KARL LANDSTEINER discovers that there are different blood groups-this leads to the first 100% successful BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS
1.50 1905AD
1.50.1 PAUL EHRLICH discovers first "magic bullet"-Salvarsan 606 to treat Syphilis. The problem was it was based on arsenic and so could kill the patient too easily
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