Merike Mikkov
Mind Map by Merike Mikkov, updated more than 1 year ago
Merike Mikkov
Created by Merike Mikkov over 3 years ago


Classification of bacteria according to gram stain and shape

Resource summary

1 Gram positive cocci
1.1 Aerobic
1.1.1 Staphylococcus: in clusters, catalase positive Staphylococcus aureus: Pneumonia, Cellulitis, Septic arthritis, Infective endocarditis, Line associated infection MSSA – Methicillin sensitive SA MRSA – Methicillin resistant SA Toxins: Scalded skin syndrome, Toxic shock syndrome, food poisoning coagulase positive Staphylococcus epidermidis Coagulase negative Part of normal skin flora, opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus Causes UTI in women Coagulase negative
1.1.2 Streptococcus - in chains, catalase negative Beta haemolytic streptococci - Lancefield grouping Group A - strep pyogenes Very sensitive to penicillin! Non-invasive infection - scarlet fever, pharyngitis (strep throat), erysipelas (infection of the skin affecting the upper layers) Invasive infections - streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, necrotising fasciitis, bacteraemia Delayed antibody mediated immune response - response to past strep infection Rheumatic fever Acute post strep glomerulonephritis Group B – strep agalactiae Colonises the vagina, major cause of neonatal infections Cellulitis, meningitis, endocarditis, bacteraemia Adults - cellulitis, pneumonia, bone infection, UTI Group D – enterococcus (can be alpha, beta or non-haemolytic) Can cause UTI, abdominal infections, biliary tract infections Alpha haemolytic streptococci Strep pneumoniae (diplococci, sensitive to penicillin)) Adults - pneumonia and bacterial meningitis Children - otitis media Strep viridans Commensals of upper respiratory and GI tract, colonise the mouth, cause infective endocarditis Strep milleri Lancefield group F, common cause of abscesses in abdomen, brain, chest
2 Gram positive bacilli
2.1 Spore forming
2.1.1 Bacillus Bacillus anthracis Exotoxins: Oedema factor, protective antigen, lethal factor. Anthroax in IVDU Bacilllus cereus Produces heat resistant spores, fried rice syndrome
2.1.2 Clostridium Clostridium botulinum toxin binds to presynaptic nerve endings and blocks Ach release. Causes descending flaccid paralysis Clostridium tetani In environment. Spores have drumstick appearance. Toxin prevents release of inhibitory neurotransmitters leading to sustained tetanic contraction. Causes lockjaw syndrome Clostridium difficile antibiotic associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis
2.2 Non-spore forming
2.2.1 Listeria monocytogenes Important pathogen in pregnant women, neonates, immunocompromised and elderly. Causes foetal infection and miscarriage
2.2.2 Corynebacterium diphtheriae angular/palisade formation Causes diphtheria - respiratory infection with pseudomembrane in throat and bull neck
3 Gram negative cocci
3.1 Neisseria
3.1.1 Neisseria meningitidis Vaccines for A, B and C serotypes available B most important for children Endotoxin causes vascular necrosis and haemorrhage
3.1.2 Neisseria gonorrhoea causes urethritis in men and pelvic inflammatory disease in women Rarely can cause septic arthritis or bacteraemia Ophthalmia neonatorum - form of conjunctivitis contracted by the baby during vaginal birth if the mother has gonorrhoea or chlamydia
4 Gram negative bacilli
4.1 Food borne pathogens
4.1.1 Shigella gastroenteritis with blood and mucus in diarrhoea. very low infectious dose (10-100) S dysenteriae Shiga toxin
4.1.2 Salmonella Diarrhoeal disease Typhoid S typhi and S paratyphi
4.2 Normal gut flora
4.2.1 Escherichia coli Commensal of intestinal tract. Common cause of UTI infections Commonest cause of gram negative bacteraemia Pathogenic E coli Enterotoxigenic E coli Cholera-like symptoms Enteropathogenic E coli infantile gastroenteritis Verocytotoxin producing E coli (VTEC) - E coli 0157 Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura
4.2.2 Enterobacter
4.2.3 Klebsiella
4.2.4 Proteus
4.2.5 Serratia
4.2.6 Pseudomonas aeurginosa leg ulcers Infection in burns Bronchiectasis Big problem in CF Very resistant
5 Small gram negative bacilli/cocco-bacilli
5.1 Haemophilus influenzae
5.1.1 Epiglottitis, meningitis, lower respiratory tract infections, otitis media
5.2 Legionella pneumophila
5.2.1 Lives in water systems, causes atypical pneumonia
6 Curved gram negative bacilli
6.1 Campylobacter - foodborne pathogen, cramping abdo pain, bloody diarrhoea
6.2 Helicobacter - peptic ulcer disease
6.3 Vibrio cholera - rice water stools
7 Spirochaetes
7.1 Treponema pallidum
7.1.1 Syphilis
7.2 Borrelia burgdorferi
7.2.1 Lyme disease
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