1.1 1987 SEA: first major revision of the Treaty of Rome = create a single market and establish free trade between all members.
1.2 1979 ERM: single European currency that would come into effect in 1999 with the intro of the Euro. Britain reluctantly agreed to membership in 1990
1.3 Britain's rep as a 'bad European was reinforced by Thatcher's very public confrontational style.
1.4 Britain = late comer into the EEC = in the late 1970s they were paying 1/5 of Community income + receiving less than 1/10 of Community expenditure
1.5 Turned down a rebate of £350 mil in 1979, only accepting a figure of £750 mil in 1980 following pressure from her cabinet and threats of resignation
1.6 Her policy contained contradictions - she had doubts about further European integration that might greaten sovereignty yet her time in office witness further integration.
2 Thatcher + Gorbachev
2.1 He became leader of the USSR in 1985.
2.2 He recoganised that the USSR's economy was falling apart - huge proportion of their budget wen on producing weapons to keep
up with the West in the arms race = knew that the only way to rebuild the USSR was to have better relations with the US.
2.3 He introduced the twin policies of Perestrokia (rebuilding) + Glasnot (openness).
2.4 He demonstrated a willingness to negotiate on arms limitations - significant figure in ending the CW.
2.5 SDI - knew that the USSR could not compete.
2.6 T visited Hungary in 1984 and attended the funeral of the Soviet leader, Yuri Andropov in Moscow in the same month.
2.7 Before Gorbachev came to power. she began to show a willingness to cultivate more open members of the USSR bloc.
2.8 Thatcher was impressed by G announcing 'we can do business together' - she identified an opportunity for a new detente.
2.9 The closeness of Thatcher's relationship with Reagan and her growing credibility in Moscow enabled her to act out the role of intermediary.
2.10 1987 Arms Reduction Agreement signed ending the CW.
3 Thatcher + Reagan
3.1 Both R + T were of one mind in the USSR and they shared the same ideas on economic liberalism
and the free market - R was impressed by T and her resolute handling of the Falklands Crisis.
3.2 Reagan was elected in 1981.
3.3 Thatcher years were a high point for the 'special relationship' not seen since Macmillan's time in office.
3.4 'Obedient poodle' - criticised for her unquestioning support for R's policies - labeled by Labour.
3.4.1 She supported the US invasion of Afghanistan, 1979.
3.4.2 GB allowed the US to use its bases in GB to launch an attack on Libya, 1986.
3.4.3 US attack on Grenada, 1983.
3.5 'Iron Lady'
3.5.1 She engaged in some intense discussions with R and secured an agreement that
research would continue, but any implementation would be a matter for negotiation.
3.5.2 T was an a conviction politician and an avowed anti-Communist, and her faith in the American alliance was inseparably linked to this.
4 Libya 1986
4.1 US launched a series of attacks on L in response to terrorist attacks believed to have been orchestrated by the regime of Gadafi against the US.
4.2 The attacks had been launched using GB air bases = REAGAN'S POODLE!
4.3 A resolution condemning the attack was passed by the US.
5 Falklands War 1982
5.1 The islands inhabitants wished to remain under GB rule.
5.2 400 miles off the coast of Argentina - had long claimed the right to sovereignty.
5.3 Small group of islands in the South Atlantic, 8000 miles from GB, with a population of 2000.
5.4 Following the process of decolonisation, there still existed a small number of territories still under GB rule which
were so small and sparsely populated that any meaningful independence was not feasible or necessarily desired.
5.5 Positive impact
5.5.1 Boosted T's popularity at home = won the 1983 election with a large majority.
5.5.2 GB's international prestige improved significantly.
5.5.3 In contrast to the Suez Crisis, the US supported GB providing supplies, crucial intelligence & the use of facilities on Ascension Island.
5.5.4 GB had responded in a decisive manner following the invasion & demonstrated that it had the ability to secure victory in a risky military operation.
5.6 Negative impact
5.6.1 A policy of maintaing the islands with a large military presence known as 'fortress
Falklands' was a huge drain on GB's resources - cost £5 bio at the end of the decade.
5.6.2 Condemned for allowing what was viewed as a preventable war: gov failed to
respond to intelligence reports that gave clear warning about an invasion.
5.6.3 Criticised for sinking the Argentine troop ship, Belgrano which was sailing away from the Islands and outside the so called 'exclusion zone'.
6 Grenada 1983
6.1 US attacked G following a left wing coup which 'endangered US students'
in G - in reality, they were taking the opportunity to remove C influence.
6.2 G was a former GB colony & member of the
Commonwealth - T was not consulted over the invasion.
6.3 Evidence of GB's junior status within the special relationship.
7 Kuwait 1990
7.1 T urged Bush to intervene in the Iraqi invasion of K, putting pressure on him to
deploy troops in the Middle East to drive the Iraqi army out of K - IRON LADY!
7.2 T's gov provided military forces for the US-led coalition in the build up of the war.
8.1 R continued to be a problem area since the white minority regime of Ian Smith had made its Unilateral Declaration of
Independence in 1965. By the late 1970s Smith's regime was becoming increasingly isolated and under international pressure.
8.2 A conference was arranged in London in 1979, and a proposal emerged for black majority rule. It was agreed that GB would oversee
democratic elections, which were won by Robert Mugabe. A new independent state of Zimbabwe was declared in April 1980.
8.3 Britain was condemned back home and within the Commonwealth and the winder international community.